Human Factors and Ergonomics Journal (HFEJ)

Volume 8, No. 2 (2023)

Published online on 30 December 2023


Regression Analysis of Heart Rate for Driving Fatigue Using Box-Behnken Design.

Muhammad Shafiq Ibrahim1, Seri Rahayu Kamat1, Syamimi Shamsuddin2

Page 1 – 13   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

There are few road accident studies that use heart rate as an indicator of driving fatigue. This study offers a mathematical regression analysis to discover which independent variables (driving speed, driving duration, body mass index (BMI), gender and types of roads) are significant in influencing the heart rate and the way these parameters interact to indicate driver fatigue. The regression analysis was conducted using a Box-Behnken design by Design Expert software. The results revealed that the values of Prob>F for all variables were less than 0.01%, indicating that all variables influenced heart rate significantly. The heart rate increased when driving speed, driving duration and BMI increased. The similar pattern was observed as the driving path shifted from urban to a moderately difficult uphill/downhill road. However, the pulse rate reduced when a female driver was replaced by a male driver. The model’s accuracy was evaluated by comparing the output data obtained from actual road driving with software prediction. First, the prediction interval of both techniques’ output data was within 95%, meeting the minimum quantitative criteria of 90% predictive interval. Subsequently, the residual errors were less than 10%. The application of regression analysis to investigate the driver’s physiological system as a factor in driving fatigue is becoming less common. The majority of current research focuses on perceptual, psychological and electrophysiological methods to detect driving fatigue. As a result, a future study will assess the effect of cognitive skills impairment, such as decision-making, on driving fatigue using the same methodology. The regression model will be useful to shed light on traffic safety measures for preventing fatigue-related road accidents.

Ergonomic assessment of patient transfer and handling: a review.

Nur Shuhaidatul Sarmiza Abdul Halim1, Zaidi Mohd Ripin1, Mohamad Ikhwan Zaini Ridzwan1

Page 14 – 31   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

This review investigates the effectiveness of assistive devices in mitigating work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among nurses during patient transfer tasks. It encompasses lateral transfer and repositioning devices such as air-assisted devices, friction-reducing sheets, and sliding boards, as well as vertical lifting tools like ceiling lifts and floor lifts. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases identified relevant studies, and both quantitative and descriptive analyses were conducted on the collected data. The findings indicate that air-assisted devices and ceiling lifts exhibit superior effectiveness in reducing the physical stress associated with patient transfers. Air-assisted devices reduced required hand forces by 51.6%, spinal loadings by 31.5%, and muscle activities by 38.7%. Ceiling lifts significantly decreased required hand forces by 76.5%, spinal loadings by 81.6%, and muscle activities by 45.7%. In conclusion, this review underscores the effectiveness of air-assisted devices and ceiling lifts as valuable engineering controls for diminishing the risk of WMSDs among nurses during patient transfer tasks.

Advanced Ergonomic Risk Assessments of Musculoskeletal Disorders via Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) Methods among Esports Players in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ahmad Fairuz1, P. Anusha2, A. Y. Muhammad Anas Farhan2, R. Nur Ain2, M. Y. Syafiqah Syahirah2, C. Mahereen2 and Y. Khadijah3

Page 32 – 49   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

Esports is characterised by its repetitive movements, and excessive engagement in this activity may lead to the development of gaming disorders and contribute to a range of musculoskeletal conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the ergonomic risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders using the RULA and ROSA methods among professional Esports players. A cross-sectional study was carried out among Malaysian Esports players in Kuala Lumpur (n=84) from September 2021 to June 2023. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The posture of the participants was assessed using the RULA method, strain related to computer-based hazards and workstation environment via the ROSA method, participants’ internet gaming disorder was recorded using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDFS9-SF), and the range of the musculoskeletal pains was assessed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 15 (17.86%) Esports players were reported to having IGD. Based on the NMQ, the common musculoskeletal pain due to gaming during the past 12 months was related to the hand/wrist, 33 (39.2%), neck, 27 (32.1%), and shoulder, 22 (26.2%). Among the players with IGD, 9 (60%) complained of having MSD. Ergonomic assessment via RULA showed 44 (52.4%) players were classified as having high ergonomic risk, with 25 (56.8%) players were significantly associated with MSD (p = 0.045; p<0.05). ROSA method indicated that 50 (59.5%) players were classified as having a high ergonomic risk with 21 (42%) players were found to have MSD, however, the association was not statistically significant (p = 0.324, p>0.05). Esports players are at a greater risk of getting musculoskeletal complications as a result of adopting improper posture and being exposed to a hazardous working environment.  There is a significant need for interventions and increased knowledge of ergonomics to encourage better gaming habits. 

A Deeper Dive into Mental Workload Implications Amidst Digital Design Tasks Among Designers Afflicted with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms

Kodsiah Mohd Juzad1,2, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin 1*, Ng Yee Guan1, Rozanah Ab. Rahman  3 , Norashiken Othman 4, Siti Hawa Mohd Kasmuri 5, Haris Rashli 6

Page 50 – 63   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common occupational condition affecting designers and other professionals who work long hours working with computers. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of CTS for mental workload in designers who have been diagnosed with the symptoms of CTS. In this experimental study on image editing for Mood Board, the risk of mental workload was measured using NASA Task Load Index (TLX) instruments.

A total of 17 designers from different design disciplines participated in this study and ranked “Effort” first in both pre- and post-assessment of NASA TLX in the Image Processing for Mood Board task. This study found that designers who scored more than 60 MWL points on this NASA TLX assessment were significantly associated with mental distress with a P-value of 0.029. The high MWL score on the NASA TLX assessment was strongly associated with mental workload. Significant correlations were observed between higher MWL scores and mental distress, spotlighting the necessity for ergonomic interventions and workload management strategies to alleviate the CTS symptoms’ detrimental effects.

Monoteisme Communication on COVID 19

Mohd Haizra Hashim1, Joana Jaya2, Saheera Sardar3, Sriganeshvarun Nagaraj4, Fadzilla Hernani Mohd Janis5

Page 64 – 77   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

COVID 19 is an infectious disease caused by a new corona virus found. These are new viruses and previously unknown diseases there was an epidemic in Wuhan, China. Various efforts in the framework of prevention, treatment, lockdown, and social distancing for the spread of the corona virus, and to break the chain of spread of the corona virus. Monoteism Communication plays a special empirical knowledge and absolves them of basic ethical obligations. The pandemic offers Monoteisme Communication a moment to credibly blend the insights of faith with the findings of science and with the requirements of ethics and religions.

Health Communication: Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine World

S. Sardar Mohamed1 , J. Jaya2 , S. Nagaraj3 , M. H. Hashim4 , F. H. Mohd Janis5, H. Hashim6

Page 78 – 101   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

Artificial intelligence technology that is increasingly used has a great influence on society, especially in the field of health, insufficient service is the focal point of this writing. By using the literature method, which is the method of critical analysis of a problematic topic. This analysis shows that public health services are improving thanks to the sophistication of artificial intelligence used in the health field. Artificial Intelligence’s ability to quickly analyze the disease of patients is amazing. In addition, this paper also highlights AI ethical concerns over the years that affected different levels of abstraction including interpersonal, individual, group, institutional, societal, and sectoral.


M.H.H. Mohd Haizra Hashim1, J.J. Joana Jaya2, S.S.M.Saheera Sardar Mohamed3, S.N. Sriganeshvarun Nagaraj4, F.H.M.J. Fadzilla Hernani Mohd Janis5,

Page 102 – 115   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

This study is about health communication by drinking okra water and making it a healthy lifestyle practice. The main purpose of this study is to review what factors need to be taken into account in the description of health communication to make it a healthy lifestyle practice. The objective of this study is to see the relationship between some psycho-social factors and communication that play a role in bringing about changes in an individual’s lifestyle, which involves physical activity and healthy eating. A research model based on the Health Belief Model was used. Indirectly, encouraging the use of vegetables such as Okra can help the community to obtain cheap sources of macro and micronutrients in addition to optimal health care.

Discover the cultural impact of the Netflix Series Lucifer

R.S. Rakcena A/P Shanmugam1, M.H.H. Mohd Haizra Hashim2, S.S.M. Saheera Sardar Mohamed3, J.J. Joana Jaya4, S.N. Sriganeshvarun Nagaraj5, A.R. Abel Raj6

Page 116 – 128  |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

The Netflix series Lucifer has become a cultural sensation and its related it with religion, morality, and the supernatural. It’s portrays the devil, religion, and morality. It’s involves analysing the characters, plotlines, and themes of the series, and exploring the intersect with broader societal values and beliefs. The cultural relevance of Lucifer and the influence on modern society that are solely devoted to the series’ content.

Driving Efficiency: Unveiling the Impact of Secondary Tasks through Design of Experiment (DOE)

Sabariah Mohd Yusoff1, Mohd Aidil Shahmin Abd Razak1

Page 129 – 135  |   Available online on 30 Dec 2023

In the field of ergonomics, secondary tasks refer to activities unrelated to the primary task when individuals perform multiple concurrent tasks. The allocation of cognitive resources to the secondary task, while ensuring the completion of the primary task, plays a crucial role in this context. Presently, there is a growing interest in understanding how distractions impact the overall driving experience. Hence, the principal aim of this research is to systematically identify the specific secondary tasks that have a discernible impact on the driving experience. Employing a 3-factor, 2-level Design of Experiments (DoE), half of the subjects participated in a real-life driving scenario while concurrently engaging in two distinct secondary tasks. This study also sought to investigate the relationship between secondary tasks and response times. Furthermore, it aimed to pinpoint the optimal secondary tasks that enhance the driving experience as a secondary objective. To accomplish this, an in-situ experiment was conducted, involving 10 volunteer drivers. Following the experimental sessions, participants were asked to provide feedback on their driving experience through a brief questionnaire. the critical role of distance in shaping emergency braking and driving accuracy. These findings contribute significantly to our understanding of cognitive demands, multitasking, and road safety in real-world scenarios.