Human Factors and Ergonomics Journal (HFEJ)

Volume 7, No. 2 (2022)

Published online on 30 December 2022


Ng, Yee Guan1; Subash Saralan2

Page 1-12   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Introduction: Exposure to occupational noise from process of mold manufacturing may cause workers experiencing hearing disorder. Present study shall focus on association of employee sociodemographic, occupational information and social lifestyle against prevalence of hearing disorder among the mold manufacturing workers. 

Method: A cross sectional study were conducted among 40 workers from a mold manufacturing company. Personal noise monitoring had also been carried out for workers to determine noise exposure level LEX, LMAX and LPEAK during their 8 hours work shift whereas the hearing threshold was obtained from recent annual audiometric test record carried out by DOSH approved mobile audiometric centre. Statistical analysis using Pearson correlation and Chi-Square has been carried out to test the relationship between the variables (IV and DV). 

Results: It was found that primarily, the age of mold manufacturing workers were significantly correlated with LHL [rs = – 0.311, P = 0.025], RHL [rs = – 0.289 P=0.035], LSTS [rs = – 0.349, P = 0.014] and RSTS [rs = – 0.349, P = 0.014]. LEX was correlated with RHL only [rs = – 0.27, P = 0.046]. Age was also correlated with overall HD [rs = – 0.351, P = 0.013]. Despite provided with PHP, recommended based on the calculation of the noise attenuation below NEL, hearing disorder were still observed among the employees. Surprisingly, the trend of presbycusis were observed among workers below the age of 30 years old where in some cases they were non-occupationally related.

Conclusion: It is not a surprise that age and Lex of the mold manufacturing workers were associated with prevalence of hearing disorder among mold manufacturing workers. However, further research or investigation should be carried out to consider non-occupational factors which may affect the worker’s hearing threshold.

Kamarudzaman  M2, Nasrull M.N.A1,  Zaki N.E.A.M3

Page 13-19   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a common and developing occupational health problem in the workplace around the world, resulting in a significant cost and a negative impact on quality of life. The causes of work-related MSDs are usually multifactorial including physical, ergonomic and psychosocial factors. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) have been identified as a significant issue for all professions specifically mechanics. This review provides a detailed examination and discussion regarding the symptoms of the musculoskeletal that occurred among mechanics in a tyre service centre. All research studies or literature reviews, which have reported on the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and/or potential risk factors for this problem in mechanics, were selected for inclusion. Many risk factors have been identified, including static and awkward posture and work practices. Overall, it is evident from the literature that MSD is a complex and multifactorial problem. Furthermore, other related industry studies have been reviewed as applicable. More research in the form of larger studies is urgently needed to help to clarify more clearly the development of this important issue the mechanics.

Kamarudzaman M2, Rahman M.N.A1, Zaki N.E.A.M3

Page 20-27   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Abstract: MSDs are major causes of work-related disability and lost time to illness. Mechanics usually perform manual material handling and are likely exposed to physical risk factors associated with MSDs. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and NIOSH lifting equation among mechanics at a tyre service centre.  This study was conducted in Taiping, Perak. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among 239 workers from several workshop. Data were collected using a combination of structured questionnaire and interview session which are Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and Risk NIOSH Lifting tools. The NMQ was used to assess physical risks factors associated with the one of the body region within 12 months. In this research, 69.46%of mechanics have suffered musculoskeletal symptoms with the most troubled in the low back (64.4%), shoulder (54.0%) and elbow pain (46.8%). According to a NIOSH evaluation, most mechanics are at medium risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. There was a statistically significant relationship between physical risk and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05). Therefore, ergonomic awareness among mechanics should be increase in order to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms.

Ahmad Subhi Zolkafly1, Rahayu Ahmad2, Azizi Ab. Aziz3

Page 28-38  |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

The Recommender System (RS) has become an important area of research in recent years, not only because it allows people to find related products and services, but because it has also expanded the research area on recommending human relationships, known as the Social Recommender System (SRS). Successful application of recommended system algorithms requires a critical mass of users. The recommendation system will not be valuable or accurate if it has few users and little data. This study examines the variables affecting a person’s decision to use a social recommendation system. The factors examined were Big 5 personality and Values and Lifestyles psychographic factors. Questionnaires were distributed using a snowball approach. The respondents were 832 Malaysian citizens, and the Results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results demonstrate several personality styles were more inclined towards the intention of using SRS. People with neurotic personalities have a negative attitude toward intention. In addition, this paper also recommends the researcher to highlight the intention to use a recommender system from different generations of the respondents. Future studies can use SRS to compare the preferences of different Malaysian generations, from baby boomers to millennials.

Sabariah Mohd Yusoff1, *, Muhammad Khairulhilmi Borhanuddin1, Mohd Usairy Syafiq Sama’in1

Page 39-48  |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on teaching and learning environment whereby the use of digital learning has been used comprehensively. The issue of digital learning has received considerable critical attention on how the students dealing with prolonged online teaching hours. Questions have been raised about the ergonomics risk of prolonged online teaching hours. This study utilized the structural strategy of a method combining qualitative and quantitative analytic methodologies. The anthropometry data has been applied to determine the correct dimensions for the student’s posture and how well the workstation would work. The survey and archive procedures were employed as research tactics to elicit responses to the study questions and achieve the research objectives. The finding indicates that neck pain is a frequent issue among students. Most student workstation components were changeable, but a few still require care. Regarding the provided goals, the aim was met, which was to determine that the ergonomic worksurface risk factor influences the severity and frequency of bodily pain. The results suggest that “the greater the duration of teaching and learning, the more intense and frequent the student’s pain.”

Adekunle I. MUSA1*, Ayomide I. MUSA2

Page 49-59   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Height is an essential and important anthropometric parameter for coroners and forensic anthropologists. Several studies have been performed to determine standing height (SH) using various anthropometric body parts. Arm span length (ASL) is recognized as an alternative means of measuring standing height for the disabled, adaptive, or unable to stand upright. This study was conducted to measure the height of pupils from the age 5 to the 12 years old using ASL A total of 440 pupils (220 male and 220 female) participated in the study and the study was conducted in Obantoko Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. The Participants’ actual standing height were measured with a digital stadiometer and ASL with a tape measure to within 0.1 cm. Results showed the mean SH of 133.23 ± 9.97 cm (male participants), 123.21 ± 11.25 cm (female participants), and 128.27 ± 11.75 cm (pooled) and mean ASL of 133.66 ± 9.88 cm, 123.83 ± 11.01, and 128.75 ± 11.55 cm respectively. The correlation (r) between SH and ASL was 0.999 (p<0.000) with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 99.8%. A regression models was developed to determine SH from the ASL. This study concludes that ASL is a reliable predictor of SH for both sexes and also a veritable tool for physical anthropologists and related professionals. The authors recommend conducting a larger sample study in six southwestern Nigerian states to develop a database for determining SH

Mohd Usairy Syafiq1, Hairul Fitri Shah1 , Sabariah Mohd Yusoff1

Page 60-69   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to study the awareness of healthcare workers and professionals during COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to estimate the awareness of COVID-19 disease and related infection control practice among healthcare students and professionals around Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The data were collected from the respondents which consists of 153 healthcare students and professionals. Median test and quantitative analysis were used to test the level of awareness. The empirical study results revealed that healthcare students and professionals were shown to have high levels of COVID-19 awareness and information, as well as optimistic attitudes toward the disease based on the total percentage of the correct response.

Abstract: This article considers the application of the principles of ergonomics in examining contemporary furniture design.   The study probes how aesthetics and ergonomics have shifted design thinking from the previous century.   The objective of research is to examine user experience and how these are translated into appeals based on understanding anthropometric values of comfort and functionality.   Some issues of aesthetics will be highlighted through two case studies of chair designs.   The aim is to critique the importance of relationships between aesthetics, ergonomics, and user experience, through assessments of anthropometric values such as comfort and posture, against visual characteristics.   Findings indicate that chair design solutions must prioritise ergonomics in achieving the goals of commercial design.   This should not mean sacrificing aesthetics, but an integrated approach that applies human-centred design principles whereby consumer perceptions of design comfort are as important as visual aesthetics.

Adekunle I. MUSA1* and Ayomide I. MUSA2

Page 81-91   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

The study was conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and body mass index (BMI) relatives to the effect among the TCP) in Ogun State which was sought and selected using the snowball technique. Twelve out of twenty local government areas which cut across the entire three senatorial districts of Ogun State were selected, which is sixty percent of the entire local government in the state. Data analysis was performed using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) V23 and Microsoft Excel (2010). The results were presented using descriptive statistics, means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, pie charts and a bar chart. The result showed that 177 TCP (88.5%) participated with 32.5 ± 0.97 years as the mean age of the respondents. However, 76.3% reported daily pains while 95.5% complained of major pains in the body. The majority 79.1% spent less than 8 hours in a standing position when controlling the traffic while 48% enjoyed rest at the close of work. The result also revealed that 80.2% had normal BMI, 33.35% were smokers and 54.8% drank alcohol respectively. Occupational health was considered as 45.2% engaged in self-medication. The study shows that age is significantly correlated with BMI (P>0.01) and alcohol drinking (P<0.01) with WRMSDs and other factors such as working hours, gender and years of experience. The study concluded that prolonged standing, walking and repetitive twisting of the hand and shoulder may have seriously affected the health of TCP.

Ummi Noor Nazahiah Abdullah1, Nurul Ikhmar Ibrahim2, Norashiken Othman3

Page 92-110   |   Available online on 30 Dec 2022

Abstract: University Malaysia Perlis supports the ergonomics requirements and practice in industry by teaching the Industrial Ergonomics (IE) course for Manufacturing Engineering students in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology. The teaching and evaluation process in IE course experienced multiple changes due to the Service Learning Malaysia- University for Society (SULAM) requirements and rapidly transform from physical to virtual learning due to COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 year end. This paper aims for investigating the effect of service learning implementation and COVID-19 pandemic in teaching and evaluation process of IE course. The pedagogy methods were applied in IE in the academic year 2018 and it was changed in service learning approach in the year 2019 and 2020 due to SULAM requirements. The main findings in this study show that the changes in the teaching and evaluation methods due to service learning implementation does effect the course satisfaction, teaching satisfaction, course outcomes (COs) and final students’ grade in positive form even though there were major challenges happened in service learning implementation especially in academic year 2019. The study also finds out that COVID-19 does effect the course and teaching satisfaction score, but it almost not contribute to significant negative impact to the COs and students’ final grade. This paper gives significant contribution for preparing the teaching and evaluation methods for future students in IE course for SULAM program specifically and for the similar course generally especially in uncertainty conditions such as pandemic and endemic scenario.