Looked But Failed to See: The Role of Gender, Driver Types, Accident History, and Licence Tenure in Hazard Perception

Nor Diana MOHD MAHUDIN*1, Aqbal Hafiz Izuddin ABD HAMID2, Asmaa’ Athirah ZULKIFLI1, and Nurul Izzati Asyikin ZULKIFLY1

1Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Jasin Correctional Centre, Jalan Lipat Kajang, 77000 Jasin, Melaka, Malaysia

*Corresponding author (email: nordianamm@iium.edu.my)

Page 13 – 22   |   Vol. 5 No. 1 2020   |    Available online on 1 Jun 2020


Hazard perception is a complex process and a better understanding of the salient contributing factors for its failure could improve the existing hazard perception tests, policies, and training programmes. However, extant literature has not tackled this issue sufficiently. Using the predictive hazard perception paradigm, this study compares motorcycle hazard perception scores and total hazard perception scores of 67 participants based on gender (male, female), driver types (car drivers, dual drivers), accident history (had accident, no accident), and licence tenure (one year or less, two years, three years, four years, five years or more). The results demonstrate that males (M = 5.96, SD = .98) scored higher on the overall hazard perception task than females (M = 5.23, SD = 1.12), t(65) = 2.64, p = .01, Cohen’s d = .69. In addition, the interaction effects between gender and driver types (F(1, 67) = 3.90), indicate that higher total hazard perception scores are obtained from male participants who are dual drivers. All other comparisons are not statistically significant. Possible explanations of the results are discussed and recommendations for improving the existing hazard perception tests, licensing policies, and training programmes are offered.


Hazard Perception, Gender, Driver Types, Accident History, Licence Tenure, Road Safety

© 2022 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFEM). All rights reserved.

Recommended articles

Publish with us

Human Factors & Ergonomics Journal (HFEJ), eISSN: 2590-3705  is the official Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Malaysia.  The journal is published on a biannual basis. HFEJ aims to address current research in the field of Ergonomics in addition to the broad coverage of cognitive ergonomics, user experience, physical ergonomics and others such as transportation, industrial design and industrial engineering. HFEJ is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics), as such we only accept original work.