DECEMBER 2018

SICK BUILDING SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG OFFICE WORKERS IN FEDERAL HOUSE KOTA KINABALU

Author: Valentine@Japulee GANTUL, Jac Fang LIM, Mohd Yusof SIDEK, Wan Mohammad ZAHIRUDDIN, Noraziah BAKRI, Leonard MASUDAL, Andrew GITAM, Simson GUNSALAM

Abstract: Sick building syndrome is a term that has been described as a complex of non-specific symptoms caused by working in buildings with an adverse indoor environment. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with sick building syndrome among office workers in Federal House, Kota Kinabalu. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to July 2010 among 361 office workers in Federal House, Kota Kinabalu. All workers who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Respondents were interviewed using questionnaire which was translated to Bahasa Malaysia and validated to identity the socio-demography, work environment and symptoms of sick building syndrome. Indoor air assessment was done to determine the selected chemical and physical parameters. Data were entered and analysed by SPSS 12.0 using descriptive, univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. The majority of the respondents were female (61.2%) and the staff involved were professional and management group (3.0%), support group I (82.3%) and support group II (14.7%). The mean age was 35.6 (9.22) years and median duration of working at the current workplace was 36 (76.0) months. The prevalence of sick building syndrome was 47.4% (95% CI: 42.2%, 52.5%). Logistic regression analysis showed that significant risk factors associated with sick building syndrome were female (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.35; p=0.001), history of allergic (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.19; p=0.001) and draught condition in work environment (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.70, 4.32; p=0.001). Physical parameters were above the standard level but concentration of the chemical parameters was within the normal value. The prevalence of sick building syndrome was considered high. Those who had history of allergic, female and exposed to draught condition in work environment were at higher risk of sick building syndrome. Medical follow up should be carried out for the affected worker with regular indoor air monitoring in the workplace.

Keywords: Sick building syndrome, office workers, indoor air assessment, prevalence

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A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE USAGE OF AN EXOSKELETON SYSTEM FOR MANUAL HARVESTING OIL PALM TREES

Author: Muhammad Fuad, MOHD, Hazreen H., HARITH

Abstract: Agricultural activities in Malaysia is still laborious at large as numerous tasks are performed manually, including in the oil palm industry. The involvement of manual and energy-intensive activities for harvesting tasks in oil palm plantations partly limits its productivity. The manufacturing industry still involves manual tasks, however, exoskeleton systems are actively adopted to improve productivity and safety of operations involving human. Therefore, we postulate that they could also be applied in the agricultural industry. A challenge in adopting any commercially available exoskeleton system for harvesting oil palm trees is to match the system’s feature and the requirements of the harvesting task. Since manual harvesting requires extensive upper limb motion, therefore this study investigates the feasibility of using a passive upper limb exoskeleton system for manual harvesting activity. Electromyography (EMG) signal of the anterior deltoid muscle located at the shoulder was compared when carrying 2 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg loads with and without an upper limb exoskeleton system. The test involved tugging motion and holding the weights at arm’s length for 1 minute. EMG results indicate that the muscle activity was reduced when performing these exercises while donning the exoskeleton for all tested loads. Nonetheless, the exoskeleton design requires optimization to suit oil palm harvesting tasks so that the productivity and safety of manual oil palm harvesting activity can be enhanced.

Keywords: Exoskeleton, Muscle activity, EMG, Fatigue, Oil palm, Manual harvesting, Biomechanics

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EVALUATION OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT BASED ON HEART RATE MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW

Author: N .K. Khamis, S.Z Ibrahim

Abstract:Performance and efficiency impairment is a critical issue particularly in the workplace. It may lead to undesirable consequences such as injury, accident and profit loss if this issue was not controlled properly in the organisation. Therefore, the three main objectives of this review are: to assess the current status of human performance research by using heart rate (HR) as physiological measures; to find relationship between HR measures and individual performance; and to identify pertinent issues related to human fatigue. A systematic literature search was performed using the following key words and synonyms: Heart rate, human, individual, occupational, worker, performance, and fatigue. Twenty two relevant laboratory studies were discussed in this review paper, chosen from electronic databases. Numerous human performance detection methods and techniques were found in the past studies. Based on this review, HR can assist researchers to determine performance according to a task demand, condition and its complexity. Overall, this review equips interested research groups, occupational health physicians, and employers with an overview of the HR measures to determine human performance in daily work practices. Future studies are needed to deal with performance and efficiency issues in daily work practices should be based on these concerns and factors found in this review.

Keywords: Heart rate, Human, Worker, Performance, Fatigue, Laboratory

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PATIENT SAFETY CULTURE ATTITUDES AMONG DIFFERENT HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS IN SELECTED GENERAL AND DISTRICT HOSPITALS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

Author: Nuaim WAN ZULKIPLI, Ibrahim Adham TAIB, Niza SAMSUDDIN, Muhammad Lokman MD. ISA

Abstract: According to the World Health Organization, the reduction of accidental injury during medical procedure is heavily influenced by patient safety culture in hospitals. Patient safety culture is a collective shared behavior ranging from individual and group values, attitudes and perception that determine the commitment of an organization‟s safety management. Organizations such as the National Health Services and the National Quality Forum have suggested that by measuring patient safety culture, the healthcare industry can be improved by assessing their ability to deal with risky healthcare delivery. Because of that, a number of hospitals in developed countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America have measured their healthcare professionals‟ patient safety attitude by using various validated safety attitude tools. One of the most commonly used tools is the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), which has been proven by many studies to have good construct validity, internal consistency and domains properties that are associated with patient safety outcomes. The SAQ can measure healthcare professionals‟ attitude through six domains, which are teamwork climate, safety climate, perception on management, job satisfaction, working condition and stress management. Despite its importance, there is insufficient data on patient safety culture among Malaysian healthcare professionals. Thus, this study was designed to investigate differences in patient safety culture attitudes among selected healthcare professionals and types of hospital. The data analyses include descriptive, one-way ANOVA test and independent t-test in SPSS. The findings showed that doctors, nurses, pharmacists and medical assistants responded differently for safety climate, job satisfaction and working condition while teamwork climate, perception on management and stress recognition are not significantly different. The results also showed that there are significant differences between the general and district hospitals for safety climate in all domains except for working conditions. These results indicate that healthcare profession and type of hospital were factors for the SAQ scores.

Keywords: Healthcare professionals, Patient safety culture, Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ).

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ERROR CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR MALAYSIAN PRIMARY CARE

Author: Nuur Asikin ABD RAMAN, Ibrahim Adham TAIB, Samsul DRAMAN

Abstract:Worldwide, medical errors occur at an unacceptable rate. Fortunately, various steps can be taken to minimise medical errors, including submitting reports to incident reporting systems, following which incidents can be categorised using error classification systems to inform risk management strategies. To this end, a diverse range of classification systems have been developed for different healthcare settings, but primary care in Malaysia has received limited attention. This study was carried out to develop an error classification system for categorising the type of medical errors in Malaysian primary care by integrating and modifying two primary care error classification systems. The new error classification system comprised of eleven major categories that branched into a total of 60 lower categories. After 107 participants analysed three cases studies, the inter-rater reliability of the 11 major categories were found to be low (Krippendorff‘s alpha = 0.347). Unsurprisingly, the 60 lower categories had an even lower inter-rater reliability (Krippendorff‘s alpha = 0.143). The participants then provided feedback about the error classification system by completing a modified questionnaire. Most of the participants viewed the error classification system as easy to use and understand. Furthermore, most of them would be willing to use the error classification system again in the future. In summary, this study successfully developed an error classification system for Malaysian primary care. Nevertheless, its low level of reliability would need to be addressed before the system can be adopted by primary care providers.

Keywords: Error Classification System, Medical Error, Primary Care, Patient Safety

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A CASE STUDY: RISK WORK PRACTICES WITH SLIPS AND FALLS POTENTIAL AMONG FOOD PRODUCTION WORKERS IN SME INDUSTRY

Author: Sharifah Aznee SYED ALI, Seri Rahayu KAMAT, Kalthom Husin

Abstract:Food production workstation is one of the most risky areas and equipped with different tools and materials which potentially to slip and fall accidents. The aim of this study is to analyse the discomfort working body posture and activities in small medium enterprise (SME) food industry, which contributes to slip and fall accidents. Forty workers at least one-year experience working in food SME industry were involved. A quantitative and qualitative method using survey through questionnaire and observation were utilized to identify workers’ experience in the food production workstation. RULA assessment was used to validate the instrument focusing on specific body discomfort or pain. The results indicated that seven critical activities of the food production workstation contributed to high RULA score of 7. The findings from this study yielded that minimizing the work shift was necessary to reduce the effect of prolonged standing. Workers who experienced prolonged standing would lead to fatigue and this condition triggered the potential to slip and fall hazard. Determining the best practices during work is useful for SME food industry in terms of limitation angle of the working posture, manual handling and suitable workstation. The outcome can be a guideline to the food service industries for precaution on the safety and health matters in the workstation.

Keywords: Posture, Standing, Food production, RULA Score, Slips and fall.

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THE STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DIMENSIONS AND ERGONOMICS CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR

Author: Che Norazri bin CHE DIN, Nik Ramli bin NIK ABDUL RASHID

Abstract:Ergonomic Citizenship Behaviour (ECB) is an employee extra role behaviour towards ergonomics. ECB is a new construct which is generally adapted from well-established studies relating to Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and more recently of Safety Citizenship Behaviour (SCB). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between specific Organizational Climate dimensions namely as Autonomy, Involvement, Supervisory Support and Welfare with ECB. Data were obtained from 448 employees who work in OSHMS certified manufacturing located in northern region of peninsular Malaysia using self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Partial Least Square (Smart PLS) version 2.0. Based on the statistical analyses conducted, the findings revealed that the specific Organizational Climate Dimensions namely Autonomy, Involvement, Supervisory Support and Welfare has significant relationship with ECB. This relationship was explained from the perspective of Social Exchange Theory. This study offers empirical evidence of the new proposed construct of ECB, which very useful for prevention of employee un-ergonomics behaviour at the workplace.

Keywords: Ergonomic Citizenship Behaviour, Organizational Climate, Social Exchange Theory, Occupational Safety and Health

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THE HUMAN FACTOR OF BIASED OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADVICE BY SAFETY OFFICERS IN MALAYSIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Author: Elvin Vijaya Kumar

Abstract:The Malaysian construction sector recorded the highest number of work related fatalities and one of the critical reasons is lack of knowledge among the management team and workers where a safety and health officer’s (SHOs) duty is to advise the employer. The study investigates the possible causes that could affect the credibility of the SHOs advice that positively associated to the knowledge of the employers on safety and health matters. The underlying possibilities were brainstormed through cause effect analysis technique by qualified subject matter experts. The study also suggested several recommendations for review and future solution of the unhealthy human factor of biased safety and health officer’s advice in Malaysian construction industry.

Keywords: Construction Sector, SHO, Workplace Safety, Biased Advice, Cause Effect Analysis

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BODY SYMPTOM SURVEY (BOSS) QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ANALYSIS OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS IN INDUSTRY

Author: C. D. M. ASYRAF, M. N. A. RAHMAN, R. M. ZEIN, HARI KRISHNAN. T. S., J. MD SAH

Abstract:This paper presented survey questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal symptom called Body Symptom Survey (BOSS) Questionnaire suitable for industrial applications. The survey can be performed through self-administered or through interviews. Similar to other musculoskeletal questionnaires, the main purpose of the questionnaire is to serve as a screening tool to identify a body parts symptoms related to musculoskeletal disorders in ergonomics context. The two main focus of the questionnaires are the frequency and the severity of the symptom of complaints by the worker. Structure and instruction on usage of BOSS Questionnaire are presented. Example of case study using BOSS questionnaire among 60 workers at manufacturing industry are included in this study.

Keywords: MSQ, Body Symptom Survey

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MUSCLE ACTIVITY AND POSTURAL ANALYSIS OF A COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINING TASK

Author: Muhammad Syafiq SYED MOHAMED, Isa HALIM, Akmal Hafiz AZANI, Mohanathas NADRAJAH, Siti Khadijah KHALIL

Abstract:Computer Numerical Control CNC machining center is equipped with advanced features to achieve high accuracy, reliability, repeatability and productivity. However, CNC machining centers still expose machinists to ergonomics risk factors such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, heavy lifting and prolonged standing especially during manual material handling. The aim of this study is to redesign the existing CNC machining center to improve work posture and reduce muscle activity of the lower back. Muscle fatigue survey, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) analysis and surface electromyography (SEMG) were used to assess subjective muscle fatigue, posture and muscle activity respectively. All machinists reported to experience muscle fatigue on the lower back area. Based on RULA analysis, the redesigned CNC machining center has improved the working posture of machinists as shown by a lowered RULA score from 7 to 3 for both right and left body side. SEMG results showed a significant decrease in muscle activity of the lower back. Therefore, this study concluded that the redesign of CNC machining center has shown has successfully reduced muscle fatigue and improved the work posture for the machinists.

Keywords: muscle fatigue, RULA, SEMG, CNC

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CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HEART RATE, MUSCLE ACTIVITY AND ANGLE OF LUMBAR ASSOCIATED WITH POSTURE DURATIONS OF LAMINATORS IN MANUAL HAND LAYUP PROCESS

Author: Nur Syafiqah RAYME, Seri Rahayu KAMAT, Syamimi SHAMSUDDIN

Abstract:Laminators are people who worked with layup process in the making of composite products. In hand layup process especially manual handling, the laminators were prone to be in high risk of getting musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). The ergonomic approach in manual handling was already established since 2005 however, no specific studies were done especially in this process. This paper is a continuation of the research done by the authors which focused more on the data analysis of experimental data collection. The study aims to investigate the correlation between heart rate, muscle activity, the angle of lumbar during layup and the duration of the working posture. From observations and survey done in the previous study, the laminators were exposed to awkward posture as they tended enormous size of the mould. Hence, the study collected 4 parameters data simultaneously. The analysis of the correlation was done using MINITAB software using Response Surface Method (RSM) analysis in obtaining the p-value of the model. From the data analysis, only two of the models show insignificant of correlation and 6 out of 8 models show correlations in between parameters. It is concluded that there was a correlation in between muscle activity, heart rate, the angle of lumbar and duration of posture, however, further studies should be done to cater the insignificant of the other 2 models with different muscle type of Lumbar Support Spinae and Multifidus Lumbar.

Keywords: MSD, HAND LAYUP, ERGONOMICS

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CAR USERS’ KNOWLEDGE & PRACTICES ON TYRE MAINTENANCE IN MALAYSIA

Author: Muhamad Syukri ABDUL KHALID, Zulhaidi MOHD JAWI, Mohd Hafzi MD ISA and Muhamad Arif Fahmi ABDUL WAHAB

Abstract: Despite being one of the main issues in automotive consumerism in Malaysia, the importance of tyre in terms of knowledge and maintenance among users are still in doubt. It can be seen that many related tyre faulty crashes have occurred in recent years. This study aims to identify and understand car users’ knowledge and practices on tyre maintenance in Malaysia. Data collection were done among car users in Klang Valley and 247 valid responses were analysed. The results indicate that users still lack in knowledge regarding tyre specifications and details. As for the maintenance, most of the users did practice recommendations accordingly with the tyre manufacturer. Apart from that, half of the respondents never check their spare tyre’s condition and a few suggested that they have no idea about presence of spare tyre in their car. To conclude, users are still lacking in knowledge regarding tyre maintenance in terms of its specifications and ideal practices. Thus, it is recommended that users to be more aware and practice a proper tyre maintenance while ensuring their tyres are always in good condition so that may, perhaps, reduce the possibility to involve in a tyre failure related crashes.

Keywords: tyre maintenance, automotive consumerism, road safety

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JUNE 2018

INITIAL STUDY ON IDENTIFYING COGNITIVE OPERATIONS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS

Author: Ummi Noor Nazahiah ABDULLAH,Norashiken OTHMAN

Abstract: Imbalance proportion of examination results between theory and coursework marks in engineering courses among engineering students become central issue among educators in higher learning institutions. This scenario gives indication that possibly the learning and teaching methods used in the class not accounted the students’ cognitive background and capability. So that, not every students received the benefits from teaching and learning process. This study investigate and emphasize the significant of understanding the cognitive capability among students as the target audience before educating them using teaching and learning method according to their cognitive capability. Two types of questionnaire were distributed to the two groups of engineering students based on neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and multiple intelligences (MI) theory and methods. The answers were analysed using data categorizing and data entry technique. The results show that both students group dominated the kinaesthetic and digital auditory according to NLP principles while high percentage in body kinaesthetic and interpersonal category according to MI. However, the other parameters that present 10% feedback should be considered as input in teaching and learning methods because it is considered as high percentage. The contribution of this study not just for teaching and learning process among young students but also significant for ergonomics training that involving people from different groups of age, experience and culture. In future, further investigation will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of NLP and MI method implementation in teaching and learning process among engineering students using the results from this study.

Keywords: Cognitive, NLP, Multiple Intelligences, Engineering students

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RISK FACTORS FOR MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS IN LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS BOTTLING PLANT – A CASE STUDY

Author: A. Zamil, M.I. Yaacob, M.H.I. Zulkapli, M. R. Shaari, R.N. Damiri, B.M. Deros, D.D.I. Daruis and M. I. N. Ma’arof

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for operators at a Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) bottling plant in Malaysia. The operators are involved in manual material handling such as lifting LPG cylinders from conveyer, rolling LPG cylinders onto platform, lifting and stacking the cylinders. Adapted Nordic Questionnaire were distributed to six subjects to determine the affected body part as perceived by them. They were also observed and assessed using pen and paper tool for entire body, REBA. The findings show that the majority of the subjects perceived that they experienced discomfort if not pain at almost every part of their body. The discomforts and pains have led them to be absent from work at any time during the past 12 month. From REBA it was found out that the loading and stacking activity gave the highest risk factor to MSDs (score 11) as compared to the rolling activity (score 7). The risk factors identified were awkward posture, repetitive movement and prolonged static posture.

Keywords: LPG Bottling Plant; Musculoskeletal Disorders; LPG cylinder; Nordic Questionnaire; Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

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ERGONOMICS INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE PLASTIC ROLL HANDLING PROCESS AT PRODUCTION AREA IN PLASTIC MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Author: Muhammad Syafiq SYED MOHAMED, Isa HALIM, Akmal Hafiz AZANI, Lai Yan LING

Abstract:Improper working techniques and substandard assistive device usage during manual transportation of heavy plastic rolls from storage to extrusion machine expose workstation operators to occupational health risks in a plastic manufacturing factory. This study focuses on the redesign the existing manual lift table to improve the plastic roll handling process. The procedure was initiated with a workplace observation followed by a questionnaire survey among nineteen operators. The ergonomic risk level was analysed through Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). The improved design concept of the device was constructed and selected using House of Quality (HOQ) and Pugh method. Statistical analysis from the survey revealed that most operators experienced occasional discomfort (36.0%) at similar pain level (44.3%) at wrist/hands, upper back, lower back, and shoulder mainly caused by difficulty to transfer the plastic rolls using the existing device. This study concluded that the new design of the plastic roll handling device is able to improve plastic roll handling process with the largest RULA score improvement from 7 to 2. Actual fabrication of new design and application should be implemented in order to improve the work posture and reduce the exertion of excessive force.

Keywords: HOQ, MSD, plastic, Pugh method, redesign, RULA

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MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS IN COMPETITIVE VIDEO GAMING

Author: Daryl Tan

Abstract: This paper reviews the rising growth of the esports industry and musculoskeletal disorders which are beginning to surface as more professional gamers train and practice to be the best in their field. To do this, various content from websites and esports reports was reviewed to identify the musculoskeletal disorders which are faced by esports professionals over various video game genres. This paper also outlines some ways forward for conducting research in the esports industry.

Keywords: eSports, competitive video gaming, musculoskeletal disorders

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GRAPHICAL VS. NONGRAPHICAL DISPLAYS: WHICH ONE IS THE BEST LABELING SYSTEM FOR LABORATORY SEARCHING TASK?

Author: Muhamad Zul Asraf MOHD ZAMRI, Ammar ADNAN, Radin Zaid RADIN UMAR, Siby SAMUEL, Norhashimah MOHD SHAFFIAR, Malek HAMID

Abstract:Graphical displays are known to improve the process of obtaining information because it can be easily comprehended. It also can be recognized faster and more precisely compared to nongraphical (i.e. alphanumerical) displays. However, it is unknown if the graphical displays application in labeling systems can improve the human performance in searching tasks in general, more particularly, on reducing the completion time of searching tasks and minimizing the errors made during the laboratory searching task. The objectives of the study are: (i) to evaluate the effect of graphical displays on the completion time of searching tasks; and (ii) to evaluate the effect of graphical displays on the errors made during searching tasks. Thirty-two participants (M= 21.875 years old; SD = 1.453) were recruited for the study, and assigned evenly to either the Graphical or the NonGraphical group. Participants were instructed to search for a total of sixteen items in a laboratory, and the completion time and errors made by him or her were recorded. The findings show that: (i) in term of completion time, there was a significant difference in the performance for Graphical group (M = 743.59, SD = 103.57) and NonGraphical group (M = 985.26, SD = 345.50) conditions; t (16) =2.680, p =0.015; and (ii) in term of the errors made, there was a significant difference in the performance for Graphical group (M = 0.19, SD = 0.544) and NonGraphical group (M = 1.13, SD = 1.360) conditions; t (16) =2.560, p =0.019. The results show that graphical displays is the best labeling system for laboratory searching task for both dependent variables being evaluated. The results from this study provide additional information regarding the application of graphical displays on human performance in general, and more specifically, recommend a better and suitable display type of labeling system – which is, one of the attributes of 5S system – for searching tasks.

Keywords: Graphical Displays, Searching Task, Labeling System, Completion Time, Human Error

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KANSEI EVALUATION OF HEADSCARF (HIJAB, TUDUNG) DESIGNS

Author: Azkar Zahidi ISMAIL, Muhamad Zul Asraf MOHD ZAMRI, Ammar ADNAN, Mohd Razif MAT HASAN, Nor Khairusshima MUHAMAD KHAIRUSSALEH, Malek HAMID

Abstract:Headscarf (tudung in Malay Language) has become one of the Muslimah fashion. Nowadays, there are massive brands and designs of tudung are available in the market. However, most of the designs are dependent on designers’ artistic sensibility. Moreover, lack of proper consideration on user preferences may results in an unfit product that may minimize the potential profit. This study used Kansei evaluation to obtain user preferences on tudung in general, more specifically, on the design criteria of the tudung in Malaysian context. Twenty-five participants were involved in a semi-structured interview, and three designs of tudung were selected (namely Ariani, Naelofar, and Galeria), and ten Kansei words were obtained (trending, beautiful, quality fabric, non-transparent, cooling effect, comfortable, easy to wear, easy to shape, wrinkle free, and uncrowded design). These information were then converted into a Kansei Questionnaire, in which a respondent was asked to rate the three selected designs based on the ten Kansei words. 158 respondents were completed the questionnaire. In overall, Ariani scored the highest among the three designs (M = 3.86; SD = 0.367), follows closely by Galeria (M = 3.85; SD = 0.321), and the lowest was Naelofar (M = 3.40; SD = 0.321). The result also reveals that there is a significant difference between the three chosen designs at p < 0.05, [F (2, 27) = 6.295, p = 0.006]. The results from this study give an additional information regarding the user preferences on tudung’s design in general, more specifically, recommends the preferable tudung design based on the design criteria, in which will optimized the fit between the design and user preferences.

Keywords: Kansei Evaluation, User Preferences, Headscarf Design, Hijab, Tudung

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KANSEI EVALUATION OF UNIVERSAL SERIES BUS (USB) CHARGING CABLE DESIGNS

Author: Muhamad Arif ABDILLAH, Mohd Arif Hafizi ABD LATIF, Ammar ADNAN, Mohd Razif MAT HASAN, ‘Atiah ABDULLAH SIDEK, Malek HAMID

Abstract:Moving towards Industry 4.0, the use of Universal Serial Bus (USB) charging cable is a need among the users of smartphones whether android, iPhone, or others. Currently, many third party manufacturers produce USB charging cable with their own brand to fulfil the demand. However, the lifetime, design, and function of USB charging cable somehow may not meet user expectations. In the competitive market, it is important to know what are the user preferences regarding the existing USB charging cable design in the market especially in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to investigate affective aspect of USB charging cable perceived by the users and how they can be relating to product specifications. A survey at 30 stores around Klang Valley was conducted to find information regarding the current USB charging product in market and three selected designs were chosen based on the popularity and suggested by the store personnel. Then the Kansei online survey was done, in which respond from 111 volunteers- 65 males and 46 females- age between 18 to 30 years old [mean = 23.33; SD =1.73] were collected using Google forms survey. The respondents were asked to rate the three-designs based on Kansei words given. The data was analyzed to find the mean scores for the three selected designs -Design A, Design B, and Design C- in this study. It was found that Design C [mean=3.62; S= 0.2511] are the most preferred design, followed by Design B [mean=3.58; SD= 0.1904] and Design A [mean=3.28; SD= 0.3213]. Then, one-way ANOVA model was utilized (SPSS Version 23), and the finding shows that the difference between the three selected designs were significant [F (23,6) = 4.211, p = 0.040]. Design C becomes most preferred compared to other design due to its futuristic appearance, lightweight to carry, and more pleasant to hold which were agreed by most respondents. As a result, the subsequent data may serve to prove informative guideline for USB charging cable manufacture to design and produce the product that meet user preferences.

Keywords: Kansei Evaluation, Kansei Word, USB Charging Cable, User Preferences, Smartphone.

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DECEMBER 2017

THE ESTIMATION OF DIFFERENT BODY DIMENSIONS FROM STATURE IN BANGLADESHI MALE POPULATION

Author: Md. Asadujjaman, Md Mashum Billal, Md. Rasel Sarkar, Md. Golam Rabbani

Abstract: The prime concern of forensic anthropometry is to identify the individuals by analyzing the disintegrated human body parts. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different human body measurements, and to estimate different body dimensions from stature. The study was carried out on 348 male volunteer participants; aged 19 to 25 years. Fourteen anthropometric parameters had been measured to conduct this study. After analyzing the data, it was found that there was a meaningful relation between the stature and other body dimensions (p< 0.001). Correlation coefficient (r) values of anthropometric data with stature were ranged from +0.22 to +0.83. The standard errors of estimation (SSE) values were varied from ±0.310 cm to ±3.899 cm. Regression equations derived in this paper can be used to estimate various body parts from stature for Bangladeshi male population. Finally, this study concluded that stature is a useful tool to estimate different human body dimensions. Consequently, this is such a novel study for the forensic department to identify persons in case of murders, accidents, natural disasters or war casualties.

Keywords: Forensic anthropometry, Body dimensions estimation, Stature

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ERGONOMIC RISK ANALYSIS AND MENTAL WORKLOAD STUDY AMONG OPERATORS IN SYRINGE ASSEMBLY LINES

Author: Ummi Noor Nazahiah ABDULLAH, Norashiken OTHMAN, Atikah AWANG

Abstract: Inappropriate sitting working position among operators in syringe assembly inspection possibly contribute to the issue of several syringes passed the quality inspection and delivered to the clients even they contaminated with over amount of silicon lubricant. This inappropriate sitting posture in the inspection workstation could result the stress, fatigue, musculoskeletal disorder and mental workload issue among operators which influence the operators’ performance. This paper presents an investigation to identify the ergonomics and mental workload issues among the operators in the syringe assembly lines. A series of interview and observations were conducted using ergonomic risk analysis (ERA) checklist to investigate the ergonomics issues. NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) method also had been used as mental workload assessment tool. The results from this study show that there are issues in awkward postures, static and sustained work posture, repetition, lighting and noise. Besides, three out of four operators experience more than 50% score of workload during inspections with the high percentage of five index elements except one operator shows the different result. This study contributes to the study field by verifying the ergonomics and mental workload as significant factor to maintain the product quality and productivity. In future, advanced analysis will be conducted to investigate the identified issues in details and next propose the workstation design improvements.

Keywords: ERA,NASA-TLX, postural analysis, sitting position, syringe assembly

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OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG A CANCER HOSPITAL NURSES

Author: Kama Azida KAMARULZAMAN, Syazwan Syah ZULKIFLY, Nor Halim HASAN

Abstract:Hospital nurses receive enormous amounts of physical and mental workload which causes them to develop work-related stress. In this research, a cross-sectional study was carried out to identify the level of perceived stress, and also to investigate the relationship between occupational stressor and perceived stress level among one hundred and eighty two (n=182) nurses in a cancer hospital. Data collection was done using a self-administered questionnaire consists Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Based on the results obtained, majority of the nurses perceived high level of stress and six variables namely “workload”, “death and dying”, “inadequate preparation”, “lack of staff support”, “conflict with physician” and “conflict with other nurses” have relationship with occupational stress. The relationship between “uncertainty concerning treatment by physician” and “perceived stress” was found to be absent. NSS explained 19.7% of PSS and “inadequate preparation” as well as “conflict with physicians” the most influential factors towards perceived stress among nurses. For future research, this study is suggested to be expanded to a greater sample of nurses in other hospitals to obtain better conclusion and generalisation.

Keywords: NSS, PSS, Occupational Stress, Nurses

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DESIGN AUTOMOTIVE DRIVER SEAT ERGONOMICALLY FOR MALAYSIAN ANTHROPOMETRY MEASUREMENT

Author: Mugilan Muralitharan, Syed Ahmad Helmi and Kamarulafizam bin Ismail

Abstract: Aesthetic value of the automotive car seat has been one of the selling point of each car besides providing functions such as being safe, supportive as well provide comfort to the occupants. Criteria that have been considered besides the aesthetic element are cushion foam and self-adjustment factor. Ergonomics are not new issue to be brought up as most of the existing seat design today have already practiced. Existing car seat manufacturers have considered anthropometry data. The average upon 95th percentile of human measurement had been deliberated. However, issues such as time spent driving and seat design issue have arisen upon the search of comfort and rising of musculoskeletal disease such as back ache pain. As a solution, this study would propose an automotive car seat design of ergonomic evolution which would create comfort by manipulating the seat cushion foams. The proposed seat cushion foam would be replacing the existing polymers with bean bag foam. This has been inspired by the nature of bean bag, fitting up and providing comfort to the occupants of various body sizes and shapes. Malaysian anthropometry measurement required for design of car seat are obtained which are later compared with the existing seats of commercial vehicle. The most appropriate design principle is used as reference. Pressure mapping of respondent seating on the existing car seat are obtained by literature review. The most sensitive compartments where discomfort have been experienced are studied and placed with sachets filed with bean bag beads. This would be then tested over a few respondents by pressure mat to figure if there were any changes in terms of comfort. This design of new car seat with a manipulation cushion foam replaced with bean bag foam could be a niche to eliminate discomfort to all range body sizes and shapes.

Keywords: Car seat; anthropometry; seat cushion foam; bean bag foam

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INVESTIGATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG WORKERS IN FOOD SERVICES (CAFETERIA)

Author: Seri Rahayu KAMAT, Eezsafauzia Azalin NORDIN , Kalthom HUSAIN, Sharifah Aznee SYED ALI

Abstract:In commercial food services, the workers are exposed to various risks factors such as awkward postures, repetition of the body movement, heat stress, prolonged standing, poor lighting and vigorous vibration that are led to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of ergonomics risk factors on worker’s postures while performing kitchen daily activities. The method adopts qualitative method on the physical experience discomfort through the interview session, workplace observation and questionnaires survey to all workers. This project started with determining the physical discomfort which influenced worker working posture while performing daily kitchen activities. The result concluded that most of the respondents faced severe pain in their upper back and lower back. This is due to kitchen daily activities usually involving repetitive and forceful task where workers are required to perform the task in prolonged working hours hence lead to the development of muscle fatigue. The effect of risk factors on the working posture of UTeM’s Cafeteria workers while performing daily kitchen activities is determined by analysing the worker posture using RULA Analysis. Based on the result obtained, the total score for all working posture for current cooking area involving male and female workers are high and required immediate improvement.

Keywords: Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Food Service Industry, Workstation

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SAFETY AT WORK AND CURRENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IN ANGLOPHONE CAMEROON

Author: Quinta Ewoh ENCHO, Rozanah AB. RAHMAN, Shamsul Bahri MOHD TAMRIN, Vivien HOW

Abstract:Occupational Safety and Health is somewhat existing and on the rise issue in Cameroon. Like most developing countries, little or nothing is being done to stop the ever-increasing rate of accidents and injuries occurred at work. In the transport sector, the rate of occupational accidents and injuries in Cameroon is nothing to ride home about. Every day, thousands of people lost their lives. What is also more disturbing is the fact that when it comes to public transportation companies, the workers are not the only ones involved; the customers or passengers are too. The human cost of poor occupational safety and health is huge. This article discusses the adequacy of the current legal framework in the transport sector in Anglophone Cameroon and proposes a strategic driver towards achieving a safe place of work for this industry.

Keywords: OSH, legislation, policy, enforcement

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MOTORCYCLISTS’ HEAD CHECK BEHAVIOR DURING MERGING IN TRAFFIC: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT RANGES OF MERGING LANE LENGTH

Author: Ahmad Taqiyuddin ABU HASSAN, Ammar ADNAN, Radin Zaid RADIN UMAR, Siby SAMUEL, Mohd Hanafi ANI, Malek HAMID

Abstract:Head check is a crucial action to anticipate potential hazards whenever a road user is about to merge onto traffic. Failing to anticipate the hazards may result a road crash. Besides road users’ riding individual behavior, there are several external contributing factors that may influence the head check performances. In this study, the length of the merging lanes of urban expressway was the focus. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of several ranges of merging lane length on motorcyclists’ head check performance during merging in urban expressways. 1200 motorcyclists were observed at twelve selected scenarios around Klang Valley Metropolitan area (n=100 for each scenario). The twelve scenarios were divided into four categories based on its length – (i) 0-100 feet; (ii) 101-200 feet; (iii) 201-300 feet; and (iv) above 300 feet. Dependent variable for this study was the percentage of head checks. If a motorcyclist turns his or her head over the shoulder towards the target zones (the area in which the potential hazard may emerge – the lanes on the expressway) while in the launch zone (the area that is two seconds before the merging nose), he or she was scored 1, else 0 (i.e. binary scoring). In general, the results show that the percentage of motorcyclists who did not performed head checks (88.17%) is higher compared to motorcyclists who did performed head check (11.83%). Specifically, it was observed that the percentage of head checks among the motorcyclists was higher at the shorter merging lanes rather than the longer merging lanes (i.e. gradually decreases from range (i) to range (iv)). This indicate that the length of merging lanes does affect the head check performance among motorcyclists during merging in urban expressway. The finding may recommend for an improvement to the current riding education curricular. In addition, it also would suggest the optimal range of merging lane length for future merging lane design, in which, may influent head check performance among motorcyclists and reduce the road crashes in the merging areas.

Keywords: Motorcyclists Behavior, Head Check, Merging Lane, Urban Expressway, Observational Study

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EVALUATION OF MOTORCYCLISTS’ HAZARD ANTICIPATION BEHAVIOR AT UNSIGNALIZED ROUNDBAOUTS: ON-CAMPUS VS. OFF-CAMPUS

Author: Ahmad Hanif AHMAD RAHMAN, Ammar ADNAN, Radin Zaid RADIN UMAR, Siby SAMUEL, Mohd Hanafi ANI, Malek HAMID

Abstract:Annually, more than 1 million teenagers and young adults died in road traffic crashes, and road traffic accident is one of the alarming causes of mortality rate in Malaysia. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and this is mostly due to improper riding behavior. This study focuses on improper behavior – performance of the hazard anticipation – of motorcyclists when entering the roundabout. The objectives of this study were; (i) to evaluate the percentage of overall hazard anticipation behavior among motorcyclists during entering roundabouts; (ii) to compare the hazard anticipation behavior among motorcyclists during entering roundabouts with different road environment – on-campus vs. off-campus roundabouts. A naturalistic observation was done at eight scenarios – four at on-campus roundabouts and four at off-campus roundabouts. Dependent variable for this study was the percentage of hazard anticipation among motorcyclists before entering the roundabouts. If a motorcyclist anticipated hazards towards the target zone (the area which the potential hazard may merge) while in the launch zone (the area of two second before merge onto the roundabout). On average, only 54.5% of the motorcyclists anticipated the hazards, while the other 45.5% did not anticipated the hazards. The data was then analyzed by using the chi-square goodness of fit test. The null hypothesis – the equal performance – was rejected, χ2(1) = 6.480, p = 0.011. Comparing the effect of the road environment where the roundabouts are located, the result shows that there was a significant difference in the percentage of hazard anticipated for on-campus scenarios (M=30.75%, SD=13.28) and off-campus scenarios (M=78.25%, SD=11.18) conditions: t(6) = -5.474, p=0.002. Thus, the null hypothesis for this comparison – the equal performance – was rejected. This result suggests that location of the roundabout (either on-campus or off-campus) do effect the hazard anticipation behavior among motorcyclists. In general, these findings suggest that an improvement in the current riding education program is needed, as well as to facilitate more awareness program to promote concern on hazard anticipation among motorcyclists.

Keywords: Motorcyclists Behavior, Head Check, In-Campus and Off-Campus, Observational Study

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SURVEY ON WORKING ENVIRONMENT POTENTIALLY TO SLIPS AND FALLS AMONG FOOD PRODUCTION INDUSTRY WORKERS

Author: Sharifah Aznee SYED ALI, Seri Rahayu KAMAT

Abstract:Food production workstation is one of the workplace which manually handle by workers during production activities. The objective of this study is to identify the main factors contribute to slips and falls at food production industry. A qualitative method using survey through questionnaire and observation was utilized to identify the harmful working environment at food production workstation. A questionnaire survey was distributed among thirty workers at the selected food production industry. The findings from this study yielded that there are four main factors contribute to slips and falls accident at the food production and services. The factors are flooring (33.33%), footwear (20.00%), cleaning (13.33%), and environment (13.33%). The outcome can serve as a guideline for further study for better understand the association between lifting, fatigue issue in slip and fall factors at food production working area.

Keywords: working posture, food production, slip and fall

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SEPTEMBER 2017

POTENTIAL OF PARTICIPATORY ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION APPROACHES TO REDUCE WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG OFFICE WORKERS: A REVIEW

Author: Ayman ALBEELI, Shamsul Bahri Mohd TAMRIN, Ng Yee GUAN, Karmegam KARUPPIAH

Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a prevalent issue affecting office workers worldwide and resulting in economic losses and health problems. Pursuing of suitable ergonomic interventions approaches became an inescapable need in order of overcoming the future forecast that expects increased proportion of office-based worker as result of rapid growth of information technology. Participatory ergonomic intervention approaches emerge as a promising ergonomic intervention method to lower the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among office workers. This review underlines the ergonomic intervention methods that have been tried or tested for work-related musculoskeletal disorders reduction in office settings. The current status of using participatory ergonomic intervention approaches has shown potential effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of work-related MSDs. The future perspectives (strengths and opportunities) of these participatory ergonomic intervention approaches includes cost effectiveness, needed materials are simple and effortlessly acquired, and of low-cost. But then, the knowledge gaps (threats and weaknesses) regarding these participatory approaches comprise the lack of quality evaluation studies. Using participatory ergonomic intervention approaches is an imperative component that might help in reducing the prevalence of WMSDs among office-workers in both developed and developing countries and being reliable methods than other sophisticated or high-cost ergonomic intervention methods.

Keywords: participatory intervention, ergonomic, office-workers, musculoskeletal disorders

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MALAYSIAN DRIVERS’ PERCEPTION TOWARDS ADVANCED DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS (ADAS)

Author: Muhammad Syafiq SYED MOHAMED

Abstract: In the past few years many advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) has made their way into common passenger cars. ADAS such as autonomous emergency braking (AEB), blind spot information system (BLIS), and many more has slowly made their way into passenger cars in Malaysia. Examples of cars in Malaysia equipped with some ADAS technology include the 2016 Mazda 3, Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid, and the recently introduced Honda CR-V. Even though ADAS has been around in passenger cars as early as late 1990’s, ADAS has only been widely introduced into passenger cars in the last few years. In this study, a content analysis of Malaysian automotive online portal was conducted to determine the overall perception of Malaysian drivers towards ADAS. As many as 277 comments related to ADAS were obtained from the Malaysian automotive online portal. Only 63 comments were related to the perception of ADAS. The comments were divided further into 27 positive comments and 36 negative comments. Due to the attitude of Malaysian drivers, as well as their driving style, ADAS technology was perceived to be more of a nuisance rather than of assistance. Two famous Malaysian driving habits, e.g. the cutting of lanes and tailgating were discussed together with the related ADAS (Lane Departure Warning, Adaptive Cruise Control and Autonomous Emergency Braking). Future implications of ADAS in Malaysia were also discussed.

Keywords: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, ADAS, Malaysian drivers, perception

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DUAL AUDIO: EFFECTS OF VOLUME RANGE ON DICHOTIC LISTENING VIA SPATIALLY SEPARATED SPEAKERS

Author:  Steven J. KERR, Carmen SIAU

Abstract:Professionals who utilize communication devices may have to listen and monitor multiple audio streams whether from different Land Mobile Radio (LMR) or public broadband (LTE) channels whilst carrying out their day to day tasks. Understanding how humans cope with multiple audio streams is therefore important to help engineers design solutions that will allow professionals to both hear and understand vital information from numerous sources. This paper describes a usability study of a spatialized dual speaker system (one speaker on each shoulder) whereby 16 participants from age 23 to 54 had to listen to 2 audio streams played simultaneously, a primary audio stream on one speaker to be concentrated on to understand content and a secondary stream played on the other speaker to be scanned for keywords. Participants were asked true or false questions on the primary stream to gauge level of information understood whilst being scored on their ability to recognize when selected keywords were spoken in the secondary stream. These audio streams were played at different volume ranges and deltas to understand if differences in volumes across a range of volumes can assist users in this task. The results has shown that there does not appear to be a specific volume range or delta that assists users in listening to content from 2 spatialized audio sources and that individual capabilities are more likely to be an important factor. Devices that have capability of broadcasting multiple channels therefore need the ability for each channel’s volume to be controlled individually and not be auto changed, as each user will have their own personal preferences.

Keywords: Dichotic Listening, Multi-Stream Audio, Divided Attention

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THE ERGONOMICS OF SEAT DESIGN IN LECTURE HALL AT FACULTY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES (FMHS), UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA (UPM)

Author: Nur Aisyah binti ALIAS, Yee Guan NG, Shamsul Bahri Md TAMRIN

Abstract: This is a cross-sectional study with the objective to determine the association between self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) and mismatch of the seats in lecture hall of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). A total of 132 respondents (47 male and 85 female) whom were undergraduate students. Eight anthropometric and five furniture parameter dimensions were measured. Instruments used were questionnaire modified from Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Martyn anthropometer set, measuring tape, height scale and weighing scale. Findings showed 51.5% mismatch of seat height, 5.3% mismatch of seat depth, 94.7% mismatch of desk height and 18.2% mismatch of upper edge of back rest. For the prevalence of MSSs in the past seven (7) days, 61.4% reported low back pain followed by neck pain (50%) and upper back pain (43.9%). There was significant difference between genders in anthropometric body measurement. Significant association were found between MSSs and mismatch. Based on the findings, it is recommended that in the event of long lecture hour, intermittent break should be allowed for students to stretch, move or better yet assume different posture such as standing or walking.

Keywords: mismatch, seat design, anthropometry, MSDs

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DIGITAL EYE STRAIN EVALUATION AMONG VIDEO GAMERS WITH AND WITHOUT BLUE LIGHT MONITOR FILTER

Author: Nik Fakhri MANSOR, Ammar ADNAN, Radin Zaid RADIN UMAR, Siby SAMUEL, Malek HAMID

Abstract:E-sports or electronic sports have been attracting a lot of attentions especially younger audience with the promise of wealth just through playing video games. Staring into monitor screen regardless of devices for an extended amount of time will lead to Digital Eye Strain (DES) in general, more particularly visual fatigue. The study is to explore the effect of extended exposure of blue light wave while playing video games to gamers, focusing on DOTA players. This study will investigate visual fatigue with and without blue light monitor filter. From a total of 20 participants who were recruited, 10 participants performed the experiment with blue light monitor filter and the remaining without blue light monitor filter. Visual fatigue was measured by the perceived frequency of light observed by each participant using critical flicker frequency (CFF) before and after the experiment. Participants were also required to perform subjective evaluation (SE) by answering questionnaire on visual fatigue symptoms that they experienced after the experiment. SE was used to establish correlation between the reading obtained from CFF to determine visual fatigue. The result shown that With_Filter and Without_Filter scored a positive and negative average difference in CFF score respectively. Teary eye was discovered to be the most common symptom in With_Filter and Without_Filter group although Without_Filter group experienced more symptoms than With_Filter group such as red eyes, twitiching eyelids, blurred near and distant vision, and pain in and around eyes.

Keywords: Critical flicker frequency, eye strain, visual fatigue, blue light, monitor filter, DOTA

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COMPUTER MOUSE USAGE AMONG COMPUTER GAMERS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRIGGER FINGER AND CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

Author: Luqman APENDAI, Ammar ADNAN, Radin Zaid RADIN UMAR, Siby SAMUEL, Malek HAMID

Abstract:Computer mouse design has evolved throughout generation. Most people are using computer mouse to do work and for entertainment. However, due to repetitive actions involving hand, it could lead to Trigger Finger and Carpal Tunnel syndromes. Objectives of the study are: (i) to evaluate the relationship between computer mouse’s usage during playing online games – number of keystroke, number of buttons clicking, distance of computer mouse dragging, and duration of active on game – and Trigger Finger syndrome via Trigger Finger test; and (ii) to evaluate the relationship between computer mouse’s usage during playing online games – number of keystroke, number of buttons clicking, distance of computer mouse dragging, and duration of active on game – and Carpal Tunnel syndrome via Phalen’s test. Thirty participants are recruited for the study. A participant are asked to download a software called ‘Mousotron’ on his computer system that provide data of his or her pattern of computer mouse usage – number of keystroke, number of buttons clicking, distance of computer mouse dragging, and duration of active on game. After that, participants are required to come to the laboratory for the assessment phase in which the Trigger Finger and Phalen’s tests are assessed. The interactions between the variables are analyzed and the results show a positive correlation for all interactions. The findings show how spending time playing video games will affect one’s health – specifically the hands.

Keywords: Trigger Finger test, Phalen’s test, computer mouse usage, mousotron

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APRIL 2017

A STUDY ON THE USAGE OF BLOOD-VOLUME-PRESSURE AS A DRIVER’S MENTAL WORKLOAD EVALUATION TOOL

Author: Ahmad Khushairy MAKHTAR and Makoto ITOH

Abstract: Estimating a driver’s mental workload level is challenging part nowadays. In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted to explore mental workload using Blood-Volume-Pressure (BVP) and Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Participants performed two secondary task at two levels of task difficulty and also in two types of traffic conditions. The results show that increasing task difficulty seems to increase Heart rate (HR) and reduce the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) data simultaneously. Especially, data for HR was high when the drivers were performing the most difficult task for mathematical arithmetic task. Results from BVP and ECG also show that they correlate each other showing that BVP can be used as a potential candidate as a mental workload measurement tools. Potential applications of this research include developing a method to estimate driver`s mental workload level through blood volume pressure as the main measurement for evaluation of mental workload as it is non-intrusive to drivers.

Keywords: Driver, Mental Workload, Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Volume Pressure

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STUDY ON NON-IONIZING RADIATION (RADIO FREQUENCY) AT BROADCASTING SECTOR

Author: Yurizman JAMIL

Abstract: Application of non-ionizing radiation isgrowing in line with the rapid technological developments which impact on human exposure may result in danger if not controlled. As such, MEASAT Broadcast Network Systems Sdn. Bhd. has been selected to be assessed regarding electromagnetic radiation –radio frequency (RF) measurement around its broadcast facilities at ASTRO complex in Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur. This study was conducted on the 3rdand 4thof February 2016. The measurement was encompassed only on the assessment of the electromagnetic radiation (radio frequency -RF) in accessible areas within and around the ASTRO’S broadcast facilities (about 1.5 meters from the floor/ground). Mapping plot measurements method on the radiation source wasmade for non-ionizing radiation exposure readings for the electric field and magnetic field (near field) between 1 to 5 meters and the distance (far field) between 10 up to > 100 meters in the area that can be in access. The time measurements weretaken and recorded for six minutes (RF) for each point of measurement (ICNIRP 1998, IEEE 1991, HWC 1999 and ARPANSA 2002). Measured radiations were assessed and evaluated against the mandatory standard exposure limits and the recommendations issued by theMalaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). The electromagnetic (RF) radiations present within the ASTRO complex were measurable but of low levels. The electrical field strengths and magnetic field strength were well below the exposure limits stipulated by the MCMC guidelines for members of the public and workers. The determined level of power density measured for the public at all locations around 0.04 μW/cm2 to 0.54 μW/cm2 exposure where the percentage wasonly about 0.004% to 0.054% when compared to the limits set by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. Based on the finding of these measurements, it was strongly believed that the presence of non-ionizing radiation emitted by the equipment within the ASTRO complex with the present loads would not lead to any significant radiation exposure received by workers around the facilities. Based on observation and preliminary inspection, at some places, especially those which were very close to the transmitting and receiving antennas, are expected to experience much higher radiation level than what was observed during the survey. This is because the range of frequencies produced by the antenna is more focused on the micro-wave frequency. It is, therefore, strongly recommended that limited accessing to these antennas to be provided with proper control measure such as by putting up radiation warning signs and notices at their entrance so that chances form personnel to get any significant or unnecessary exposure to radiation can be minimized.

Keywords: Non-Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Field, Radio Frequency,Broadcasting Sector,Electric Field, Magnetic Field, Near Field, Far Field, Mandatory Standard Exposure Limits, MCMC

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THE EFFICIENCY STUDY OF LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATIONS PERFORMANCE CONDUCTED IN THE WELDING WORKSHOP A CASE STUDY AT TECHNICAL COLLEGE

Author: Yurizman JAMIL and Nor Halim HASAN

Abstract: Students who carried out their study in welding workshop may be exposed to health risks from inhaling welding fumes. There are 10 sets of Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) system installed in the welding workshop which consist 6 sets-special types of arc welding and 4 sets-special types for welding of MIG /TIG. A total of 7 sets of Local Exhaust Ventilation System that tested the effectiveness for(Capture Velocity) were used to measure the reading at a distance of 6 inches from the air openings and compared with standards set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). There were 3 sets of Local Ventilation system that cannot function due to damage to the circuits and equipment.Scope of study revolved around the aspects focused on the  measurement aperture(hood) where Capture Velocity data were taken and observations throughout the effectiveness of the system. Instruments used were Anemometer, Smoke Tube Tracer Set and Measuring Tape. There was an availability velocity measurement that fails when comparing to the standard that is set for the welding process. There were no maintenance records and test reports of Hygiene Technician II recognized by Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) as provided under the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, Regulations-Occupational Safety and Health (Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health) Regulations 2000. According to this study, it is suggested to immediately perform maintenance / repairs to the ventilation system and run a full test of the entire system by Hygiene Technician II. Ensure suitable personal protective equipment is used for welding work. Compliance with the requirements of Regulation 17(1) (Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health) Regulations 2000 that mentions any engineering control equipment provided shall be inspected at each interval being no longer than one month by employer; and examined and tested for its effectiveness by a registered hygiene technician at each interval being no longer than twelve months.

Keywords: Local Exhaust Ventilation System,Engineering Control Equipment,Welding Workshop, Capture Velocity, ACGIH, USECHH Regulations 2000

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WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS (WMSDs) AMONG INDUSTRIAL PACKAGING WORKERS IN MALAYSIA

Author: Mohd Zubairy SHAMSUDIN, Vidya VIJAYAKUMAR and Mohd Yusof MD DAUD

Abstract: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) is an occupational health issues that being actively discussed over the world. In Malaysia, there is trend of increasing over the years, particularly in the manufacturing sectors. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSDs) among manual material handling workers. METHODS: Task analysis was used to determine work process and identify generic risk factors contributes to the WMSDs. Meanwhile, Work Movement Task Analysis (WMTA) was applied to evaluate specific work-related ergonomic risk factors. Further, trend of discomfort and pain among workers was identified using body discomfort survey. Relationship between WMTA‟s risk score and symptoms of discomfort was determined using chi square analysis. RESULTS: It showed most of the workers (94%) were considered in the range of moderate risk according to WMTA‟s risk categories, meanwhile two cases each for low and high-risk category. While body discomfort survey for neck, back, shoulder and arm and knee and legs respectively revealed 42%, 74%, 89% and 29% workers had symptoms of discomfort or pain. However, there was no significant relationship between WMTA risk score with discomfort. There were other factors influenced WMSDs rather than working postures. This study suggests body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, psychosocial hazards and general health status possibly seems predispose to the discomfort symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The activities were generally in the moderate risk level, which requires further investigation, and need to change when required. Shoulder discomforts substantially among workers mainly affected from pulling, pushing and lifting tasks. Effective control measures and prevention should employ according to the principles of OSH risk management inclusive hierarchy of risk controls. INDUSTRY RELEVANCE: Systematic ergonomic risk assessment consists of task analysis, onsite evaluation and body discomfort survey. Control measures lead by intervention steps on major risks followed by residual risks. This study introduce new observational instrument called Work Movement Task Analysis (WMTA)as an alternative approach to evaluate WMSDs.

Keywords: Work-related musculoskeletal disoders, ergonomic risk assessment, task analysis, observational approach

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MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS AND ERGONOMIC HAZARDS AMONG ROOM ATTENDANTS IN HOTEL INDUSTRIES

Author: Mohd Nasrull Abdol RAHMAN and Mohd Syahir Muhamad JAFFAR

Abstract:Ergonomic hazards which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ergonomic problems would affect their work performance for hotel industries. Data for MSDs prevalence among room attendants were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and direct observation via Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) Checklist for examining the ergonomic hazards at hotel industries. The highest body part trouble among room attendants in the last 12 months were low back pain (60%), followed by wrists/hands (41.5%), and knees (36.9%). WISHA Checklist results showed that most of room attendants were found in hazard level for risk factors involving awkward posture and highly repetitive motion. All the results obtained showed that the essential ergonomic interventions are needed to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Symptom, Ergonomic Hazards, Room Attendants, Hotel Industries

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ASSESSING EXPOSURE TO PHYSICAL RISK FACTORS FOR WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AND RELEVANT PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS AMONG ASSEMBLY WORKERS IN AN AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT ASSEMBLY PLANT

Author: Fazilah ABDUL AZIZ, Zakri GHAZALLI, Nik Mohd Zuki MOHAMED, and Amri ISFAR

Abstract:

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the manufacturing industry. Determination of musculoskeletal disorders and its relevant factors are one the most leading basis for ergonomics intervention programs in the automotive industry. This study was aimed to identify the ergonomics physical and psychosocial risk factors in automotive component assembly plant workers. In total ten workers with different job tasks were observed using Quick Exposure Check (QEC) which is an observational instrument, which allows practitioners and workers to assess four key regions of the body. It was found that automotive assembly component assembly plant workers were exposed to many postural problems while performing automotive component assembly task activities. Results of the QEC scores were found to be very high for the worker’s neck, whereas the scores for the worker’s back (in moving) and worker’s shoulder/arm were found to be high. The workers in  spot gun welding process in two workstations including panel member rear cross No.1 spot gun welding assembly process (Line 2) as well as workers at the panel roof side inner spot gun welding assembly process suffered from very high levels of WMSDs at all worker’s main body regions except wrist/hand. Meanwhile, the vibration exposure level is high in most of the workstations. In addition, a very high exposure level for stress has been found in the panel member rear cross No.1 spot gun welding assembly process (Line 2) workstation. Musculoskeletal disorders had a high prevalence among workers in this automotive component assembly plant. The physical and psychosocial risk factors were required to be identified and controlled so that the WMSD’s symptoms can be minimized. The results of this study will be applied to a knowledge based ergonomics risk assessment system development for assembly plant workers in an automotive component manufacturer.

Keywords: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), musculoskeletal disorders automotive component assembly plant, manual assembly process, and manual welding assembly process

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DECEMBER 2016

DEVELOPMENT OF A REGRESSION MODEL FOR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPHYSICAL AND BIOMECHANICS FACTORS OF PUSH ACTIVITIES

Author: Mohammad Firdaus ANI, Seri Rahayu KAMAT, Athirah GHAZALI

Abstract: In aerospace industries, many working tasks require their workers to perform the works in push-pull activities. The workers need to push or pull the mould tool in a long distance in to a workplace. Performing these activities continuously throughout the working hours, may lead to an early initiation of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) symptoms as workers developed muscle fatigue particularly concerning the hand muscles. Grip strength is the force applied by the hand to pull objects and is a part of hand strength. Repetitive usage of hands will create an imbalance between closing and opening (antagonist) muscles, which can lead to problem such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The primary purpose of this study was to develop a regression model based on psychophysical and biomechanical factors that contributes to fatigue, in which the models can predict the relationship between the input parameters and output responses. The methodology used for this study focused on three types of data collection which were questionnaire and observation which conducted as the preliminary study to prove the problems that have been stated and experimental was conducted by using surface Electromyography (sEMG) and Tekscan system to evaluate the muscle fatigue and hand grip pressure force of the Lay-up workers who were performing push activity. This study investigates the hand grip pressure force for the right hand and left hand within 5 minutes and 10 minutes of time exposure while workers pushing the mould tool, and study the relationship between time exposure with hand grip pressure force and muscle fatigue. The input parameters evaluated were time exposure, hand side and body mass index (BMI); while the output responses are muscle fatigue (voltage), hand grip pressure force (left hand), and hand grip pressure force (right hand). Two polynomial equations were successfully developed and validated. The modelling validation runs were within 90% prediction interval of the developed models and their residual errors compared to the predicted values were less than 10%. The significant parameters that influenced the output responses were also identified. Muscle fatigue was influenced by time exposure, hand side, BMI, and interaction between hand side and BMI; while hand grip pressure force was influenced by time exposure, hand side, BMI, interaction between time exposure and hand side, interaction between time exposure and BMI, and interaction between hand side and BMI.

Keywords: MSDs, CTS, sEMG, Grip strength, Psychophysical, Biomechanical

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REDUCTION OF MAXIMUM EFFORT LEVEL OF LUMBAR MUSCLE AMONG WORKERS IN AEROSPACE INDUSTRY

Author: Seri Rahayu KAMAT, Norhidayah HASHIM, Isa HALIM, Mohd Shahrizan OTHMAN, Mohammad Firdaus ANI

Abstract: In the new era of world industrialization, ergonomics plays an important role to improve occupational safety and health, and productivity in most industries including an aerospace industry. However, the manufacturing industry in Malaysia does not put any priority on ergonomics awareness, for an example, by not selecting a suitable height of workstation with operators’ anthropometry. Ergonomics so far has litle impact in Malaysia as majority of the Malaysian managers had believed that the ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance. In a recent study on ergonomics awareness in Malaysian manufacturing industries by Mustafa et al., (2009), the researchers discovered that the main factors for the lack of ergonomics awareness were the lack of information/education/training and no pressure from the top management to initiate the ergonomics programmes. As a consequence, operators are exposed to various ergonomic risk factors and prone to have ergonomic injuries. The objective of this study was to reduce the maximum effort level of lumbar muscles of operators by changing the height of workstation using suitable anthropometry among operators. This study has conducted two analyses; analysis for quantify maximum effort level of lumbar muscle, and analysis for identify comfort level of working posture The surface Electromyography (sEMG) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method from Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application (CATIA) software are used to evaluate maximum effort level of lumbar muscle, and comfort level of working posture respectively. Results for maximum effort level of lumbar muscle and comfort level of working posture found that by changing the anthropometry with suitable height of workstation has diminished the physiological stress such as work load in lumbar fascia muscle as well as extreme working posture. The study concluded that anthropometry of operators associated with the height of workstation was influenced the maximum effort level of lumbar muscle and comfort level of working posture when operators performing their jobs. The appropriate selection of workstation’s height can contribute significantly to improve physiological performance of the operators.

Keywords: Maximum Effort Level of Lumbar Muscle, Anthropometry, Height of Workstation, RULA Method

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ABSENCE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND INCIDENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISCOMFORTS AMONG OFFICE WORKERS A SHORT REVIEW

Author: Ardalan SHARIAT, Shamsul Bahri Mohd TAMRIN, Mahmoud DANAEE

Abstract: Lower back, neck and shoulder pain are the most prevalent musculoskeletal problems affecting office workers worldwide. Several hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms and the maintenance behind office work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been presented. There is some evidence, based on epidemiological studies as well as studies upon smaller groups of subjects, that individuals who sit and work for a long time not only show cognitive impairment at the workplace, but also suffer from poorer and fragmented daytime sleep, in addition to increased risks of developing various psychological, physiological and medical impairments and musculoskeletal disorders. The related physical mechanisms behind musculoskeletal disorders are discussed in the context of new findings. The main causes, as well as varying levels in severity of musculoskeletal disorders, not to mention the link between such disorders in the neck, shoulder and lower back regions and physical activity among office workers are also stated. The main objective of this review paper is to conduct a systematic review to identify musculoskeletal disorders and how these disorders are correlated with physical activity among office workers. The results of this review indicate that the musculoskeletal disorder is a critical issue among office workers and the main cause is related to the absence of physical activity as well as the subjects’ sedentary lifestyle.

Keywords: Sedentary life style, Musculoskeletal disorders, Office workers, Physical activity

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KANSEI ENGINEERING APPROACH TOWARDS AUTOMOTIVE HEADS UP DISPLAY (HUD) INTERFACE DESIGN

Author: Muhammad Syafiq SYED MOHAMED,Chin Pow, OOI

Abstract: Driver distraction is becoming a growing concern in Malaysia since in vehicle electronic devices are becoming more common in cars. Among the technologies being installed in cars is Heads Up Display (HUD). HUDs are meant to help drivers to focus their attention towards the forward roadway while driving by providing a simplistic display of speed and car navigation while driving. In this study, a Kansei Engineering approach is used to translate the usability requirements for HUD interfaces. A new HUD interface design was developed based on important features such as digital speed indicator, speed limit sign, as well as the indicator for the next turning.

Keywords: Kansei Engineering, automotive, HUD

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EVALUATION OF HEAD CHECK BEHAVIOR OF MOTORCYCLISTS DURING MERGING IN TRAFFIC – OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Author: Muhamad Hafiz ZABIDI,Ammar ADNAN, Radin Zaid RADIN UMAR, Siby SAMUEL, Mohd Hanafi ANI, Malek HAMID,

Abstract:Improper riding behavior is one of the leading contributors for road crashes. Not wearing helmet, speeding, riding during fatigue and sleepy, and improper procedure during merging in traffic are among the poor behaviors of motorcyclists. For this study, improper merging behavior is the focus. The objectives of the study are: (i) to evaluate motorcyclists head check behavior during merging in traffic; (ii) to evaluate the differences of motorcyclists head check behavior during merging in traffic with different environments – highway and town (with and without U-turn situations). A naturalistic observation study was done where 1091 motorcyclists were observed at eight locations (scenarios) – four of highway road environment, two of town with U-turn environment, and two of town without U-turn environment. The dependent variable is the percentage of head checks. If a motorcyclist performs head check towards the target zone (the area in which the potential hazard may merge – at the entering road) while in the launch zone (the area where a motorcyclist should turn his or her head to the target zone – on the leaving road), he or she was scored one, else he or she was scored zero. It was found that, in overall, the percentage of motorcyclists who performed the head check (39.9%) is less than those who did not performed the head check (60.1%) – p ≤ 0.001. In term of the type of the road environment, similar results were found for the merging with highway environment (29.4% performed head check) and town without U-turn environment (31.4% performed head check). In contrast, for the merging with town with U-turn environment, the opposite result was found (75.7% performed head check). These differences were significant with p ≤ 0.001. This study provides prevalence information about Malaysian motorcyclists’ behavior in general and, more particularly, their behavior on the head check during merging in traffic. The findings shall recommend for an improvement to the current Malaysia riding/driving education system and road users awareness program in which may decrease the road crashes.

Keywords: Motorcyclists Behavior, Head Check, Merging, Highway and Town, Observational Study

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PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE BEST WORKING POSTURE FOR MOTORCYCLING

Author: Muhammad Izzat Nor MA’AROF, Abdul Rahman OMAR, Zamalia MAHMUD, Nasir SENIN

Abstract:Motorcycle riding posture has generally been documented to be ergonomically unfitting for human. This is because the human operator is mostly seated at static with minimal sitting support and without a backrest. Thus, it is emphasized that there is a link between motorcycling riding posture (motorcycle ergonomics) with motorcycle road accidents. The objective of this study was to identify the best riding posture for motorcycling based on a survey study. The significance of this study was to investigate the public perception on the best motorcycling riding posture. A survey research with 30 healthy motorcyclists (between the ages of 18 – 25 years old) from diverse backgrounds via questionnaire was conducted. The data was analyzed via the Statistical Package Service and Solution (SPSS) with the statistic for level of confidence at 95% (1.96), expected proportion (in proportion of one) at 0.5 and the precision (in proportion of one) at 0.1 (due to the limitation of resources). For greater grasp of understanding in regards to the results obtained, veteran motorcyclists (above 14 years of riding experience) were also consulted. The results summarized that the best riding posture for motorcycling is the upright riding posture. From the consultation, it was detailed that the particular riding posture was most probably selected due to the following reasons: i) being the most versatile/flexible riding posture, ii) capable of providing an acceptable level of motorcycling comfort, iii) propose minimal level of physical hazard. Even so, the results also highlighted by the consultants that other factors such as modes of travelling and riding styles would also influence in determining the best riding posture. Conclusively, based on the survey, the upright riding posture is the best riding posture. Nevertheless, the result is only limited to physical and psychological (perceptions) evaluations without examining the riding postures from the physiological perspective such as via the use of sEMG measurement.

Keywords: Motorcycle Ergonomics, Riding Posture, Working Posture

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THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE LEVELS ON TASK PERFORMANCE A REVIEW

Author: Ezrin Hani SUKADARIN, Tan Zhen SHENG, Junaidah ZAKARIA, Fazrina SALLEH and Khairul Amri Abdul AZIZ

Abstract: Temperature may negatively affects human performance rate and human physical response if it is not properly controlled. Effects of temperature on task performance and its contribution to the occurrence of thermal comfort had been a major focus in hundreds of studies. However, until now inconsistent results were yielded from those studies. This paper presents the literature review of the researches on the effects of temperature on task performance. To gain better understanding, thermal comfort issue and task performance also have been reviewed. Conclusively, there are some researches which have proved that the variations in temperature levels can affect task performance and thermal comfort, while some researchers disagreed with the finding.

Keywords: Temperature, Task Performance, Thermal Comfort

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A CASE STUDY OF ON THE USAGE OF SAFETY HELMET AMONG AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN PALM OIL PLANTATION

Author: Ammar ADNAN, Roya LATIFI, Shamsul Bahri MOHD TAMRIN, Yee Guan NG, Khairul Nazri ABD WAHIB, Ahmad Rizal ABDUL RAHMAN, Shahriman ABU BAKAR

Abstract:Personal protective equipment or PPE is important to protect the user against safety or health risks at work. In oil palm plantation, safety helmet is one of the important PPE to protect against falling object or impact. The aim of this study was to gather data regarding the knowledge, attitude and practice on the usage of safety helmet among oil palm workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 178 workers in two oil palm plantation located in Melaka, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to collect data on socio-demographic, safety information, knowledge, attitude and practice on the usage of safety helmet. Based on the descriptive analysis, results indicate that the workers lack in knowledge, attitude and practice of the safety helmet used. Thus, intervention program on usage of safety helmet should be carried out to increase safety awareness among the workers.

Keywords: safety helmet, harvester, oil palm

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PREVALENCE OF CATARACT, CLIMATIC DROPLET KERATOPATHY AND EYE LID DISEASES AMONG FISHERMEN IN JAZAN IN SAUDI ARABIA, AND THE ASSOCIATION OF RISK FACTORS

Author: Ahmed ALIBRAHIM, Shamsul BMT, Nasser ALSSABANI, Yee Guan NG, Nazri OMAR, Faisal SHAIKH

Abstract:The fishermen in the coastal region of Jazan are subjected to long working hours in the sun where the risk for cataract, climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK) and Eyelid diseases due to solar radiation are high. The objective of this study to determine the prevalence of anterior segment eye disorders, specifically cataract, CDK and eyelid diseases among fishermen in Jazan and examination of its association with the sociodemographic and occupational among fishermen in Jazan. This study employed a cross-sectional design conducted in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. A total of 511 fishermen were included in the study. All the respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire and subsequently undergone an eye examination. The prevalence of the cataract was found to be 3.3 %, CDK, 0.4 % and the eyelid diseases affecting 3.2 % of the respondents. A significant association was seen between the prevalence of anterior segment eye disorders (p<0.05). Overall, CDK for fishermen with less than five days of work per week was found to be 75 % while for fishermen with more than five days of work per week the CDK was found to be 25 %. The overall eyelid disease on the other hand was found in all the respondents with over five days of work per week. The overall cataract for the same group of fishermen was however 64.7 % while for fishermen with less than five days of work per week it was found to be 35.3 %. Knowledge and awareness training as well as future research are warranted to assess the health implications of fishermen in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. It is imperative for all involved to take notice of such implications on health with the government implementing regulatory frameworks that can aid these fishermen. Future research is also recommended.

Keywords: CDK, UV, eyes disorders, cataract, eyelid diseases

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SEPTEMBER 2016

COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF SITUATION AWARENESS FOR ACTION PERFORMED IN DRIVING

Author: Rabi MUSTAPHA, Azizi Ab AZIZ, Yuhanis YUSOF

Abstract: Driving is defined as a process of moving from one destination to another with the main aim to get to the destination safely. This study proposes a computational situation awareness model to assist drivers in effective performance of action based on his decision. The model incorporates cognitive factors that will influence action performance (yes/no) of the driver. To illustrate the proposed model, simulation scenarios based on overtaking maneuvers has been conducted. The experimental results show that the external factors attention and expectation have contributed to the effect on the safe and risky driving behavior and by suggestion on the driver’s action to perform the overtaken maneuvers based on his decision. Moreover, this model has been verified using an automated verification tool by checking its traces with the existing results from the literature.

Keywords: Computational Models, Situation Awareness Model, Performance of Action, Driving

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USABILITY EVALUATION OF NEW KANSEI INTERFACE FEATURE VERSUS. EXISTING INTERFACE FEATURE IN AUTOMOTIVE NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Author: Alwis N, Muhammad Syafiq Syed Mohamed and Shamsul BMT

Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the usability of new Kansei navigation system interface features versus. existing interface design features in automotive navigation system. The Study population consist of participants which are chosen using purposive sampling technique consist of male professional drivers (PD) and non-professional drivers (NPD) of a local University in Malaysia. A total of 60 participant ranging from 18 – 39 years old participated in this study. Participants were tested using a customized driving simulator which participant will drive according to the route shown by the GPS navigation system( GPS system based on Kansei versus existing system) drivers were tested in terms of their 1) completion time for each task given 2) the number of error produce from each task 3) the satisfaction level from each feature in the GPS system using System Usability Scale (SUS) 4) a kansei survey to measure participant understanding and perception towards usability of GPS interface designs. A Counterbalance method was used in order to eliminate order biased participant. A total of 10 minutes was taken to complete the overall task. Wilcoxon Sign Test was used to compare all objectives except for satisfaction level for NPD and Kansei survey for PD.The Result for driving completion time for both PD and NPD, shows that Kansei GPS system (PD, mean = 2.49±0.66 min, NPD, mean = 2.18±0.71 min) had significantly shorter completion time (p=0.013) compared to the existing system (PD, mean = 2.75±0.66 min, NPD, mean = 2.44±0.74 min). For the number of errors, Kansei GPS system showed a significantly lowered driving error (p <0.05) (PD, mean = 8.86±6.55, NPD, mean = 7.23±6.03) compared to existing GPS System (PD, mean = 13.7±7.94 NPD, mean =10.6±7.6). For the satisfaction level showed no significant different in satisfaction for Kansei GPS System both (PD, mean score = 61.7±19.4 NPD, mean score = 66.58±21.9) compared to existing GPS (PD, mean score = 66.58±21.9 NPD, mean score = 63.58±20.9) (p>0.05). In term of Kansei Survey, shows that there is a significantly higher scoring for Kansei GPS system for both (PD, mean score = 3.6±0.99 and NPD, mean score = 3.69±1.44) compared with existing (PD, mean score =3.15±0.88 NPD, mean score = 2.68±0.18) (p<0.05). The conclusion of the was the new Kansei GPS system performed better in reducing the task completion time, reducing the numbers of driving error and easily distinguish features compared to existing GPS system. However, both professional and non-professional were satisfied using Kansei and existing GPS system.

Keywords: Kansei, GPS, Simulator, Error, Completion time, Drivers, SUS

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MULTI-MODAL USER INTERFACES: EFFECTS OF REDUNDANT AND COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES IN HIGH STIMULI ENVIRONMENTS

Author: Steven J. Kerr, Carmen Siau

Abstract: Professionals such as public safety workers have to use communication devices as part of their job which can be high stress and involve demands on their cognitive resources that would be better applied to their task at hand. Multi Modal User Interfaces (MMUI), have been proposed as a way of supporting more flexible, efficient interfaces, appropriately conveying information to users whilst they are busily involved in their tasks. In this paper we describe a usability study dealing with two types of MMUI environments, redundant and complementary, under a controlled driving simulation environment and explore how these two approaches plus increasing modality impacts user interactions with their primary task of driving plus their secondary task of communicating.
Results show that increasing modalities potentially help users communicate more effectively in high stimuli environments though modality conflict has to be considered when the user cannot ignore it e.g. audio instructions on driving whilst talking to someone. Whilst complementary modalities show a slightly higher cognitive load rating, in general there appears little difference between redundant and complementary approaches.

Keywords: multimodal interfaces, communication devices, cognitive load, usability

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HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN MALAYSIAN GREEN BUILDING DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

Author: Tsau Kar Yen, Izran Sarrazin Mohammad, Rohaya Abdul Jalil, Abdul Hakim Bin Mohammed

Abstract: This paper reviews the importance of incorporating human factors and ergonomics (HFE) in the development of Malaysian green buildings. Apparently, the development of green buildings is often focussed on achieving energy efficiency, low carbon emission, and lower operation and maintenance cost. However, green buildings should not only be environmentally and economically sustainable. Instead, it should also be socially sustainable. Social sustainability is connected to HFE and this could help to improve the quality of green development. It is imperative to consider HFE in green buildings as it is a discipline related to the understanding of the interaction among humans and other elements of a system in order to optimise human well-being and overall system performance. However, many tend to overlook the importance of human factors in green buildings and this may lead to some of the green features failed to be implemented, performed or not utilised in a way that maximises the performance of green buildings, thus restraining the green features’ usability and their potential benefits. Therefore, based on literature review, this paper reviews the need to incorporate human factors in the green building development and how this could benefit to improve the performance of green buildings in the Malaysian context. The findings show that HFE is still in its infancy stage in Malaysia. HFE is mostly implemented in the workplace focusing on occupational safety and health to reduce musculoskeletal disorder, risk, absenteeism and illness. The findings presented in this paper could create awareness among the practitioners on the benefits of creating flexible and ergonomic green buildings that accommodate building users, promote a healthy, comfortable and productive environment.

Keywords: Green Building, Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE), Green Building Performance

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CAR USERS’ AFTERMARKET BEHAVIOUR IN KLANG VALLEY: A SPECIAL FOCUS ON AUTO TINTING

Author: Zulhaidi MOHD JAWI, Mohd Hafzi MD ISA, Mohd Syazwan SOLAH, Aqbal Hafeez ARIFFIN, Azhani ALI

Abstract:This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of automotive tinting popularity among car users in Malaysia. While comfort (heat and glare) and security stand among the main reasons behind the popularity, there is however, some notable safety arguments about the automotive tinting. The prevailing regulation on auto tinting, which is dubbed as “outdated and unfair”, had caused public uproar about the permissible limit in terms of Visible Light Transmission (VLT). The results from the most recent survey on automotive consumerism are used in the discussion, together with two previous MIROS’ studies i.e. on weather issues and the auto tinting consultation report to the Ministry of Transport Malaysia (MOT). The highlights, among others, were about the aftermarket behavior among car users in Klang Valley. Out of 265 respondents, approximately 70% of them had done the tinting to their current (main) car with the declared mean and maximum cost of MYR 780.81 and MYR 4,000.00, respectively. Also, the result has supported that the auto tinting together with the tires are the most popular aftermarket items for modification and retrofitting among the car users.

Keywords: auto tinting, Visible Light Transmission (VLT), aftermarket behavior, comfort

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THE PREVALENCE OF WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AND STRESS LEVEL AMONG HOSPITAL NURSES

Author: Ezrin Hani SUKADARIN, Norraphat Uttraphan PIM, Junaidah ZAKARIA, Baba Md DEROS, Nur Syazwani Md NAWI

Abstract:Hospital nurses receive enormous amounts of physical and mental workload which causes them to develop work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and occupational stress. In this research, a cross-sectional study was carried out to identify the prevalence of WRMSDs, to evaluate the level of stress, and also to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) and stress level among one hundred and eight hospital nurses (n=108) in a government hospital. Data collection was done using three instruments, namely Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment Tool (WERA), and Stress Overload Scale Instrument (SOS). Based on the results obtained, a majority of the nurses suffer lower back pain whereas in terms of stress level, the nurses face relatively high stress level from their work. The relationship between MSCs and stress level was found to be absent. WRMSDs and stress are both multifactorial thus making it hard to conclude that the WRMSDs experienced by the nurses are caused by stress. Because of that, further study in relation to WRMSDs and stress is required to explore this issue.

Keywords: WRMSDs, NMQ, WERA, SOS

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KNOWING WHEN TO SUPPORT: A HUMAN-AWARE AGENT MODEL IN A PSYCHOLOGICAL DOMAIN

Author: Azizi Ab AZIZ

Abstract:The human mind is undoubtedly one of the most complicated entities in this world. The collection of processes that are performed by the human mind is indicated by cognition. Much progress has been made to allow scientists to understand this fundamental concept of mind. Formal analysis is one of the methods to unravel the mechanisms of mind. This is in line with the aim of cognitive modellers in their quest to explain the structures and the processes of the mind by building them. In this article, the foundations to develop a cognitive computational model will be discussed and a case study (model in anxiety state and traits) is presented as a basis to visualize those concepts (foundations). A number of well-known relations between events and the course of anxiety are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the model exhibits those patterns. In addition, the formal model has been mathematically analysed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in virtual simulation environment, supported by a software agent.

Keywords: computational psychology, cognitive modeling, human functioning model, human-agent model

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ON MODELLING COGNITIVE LOAD DURING READING TASK

Author: Hayder M. A. Ghanimi, Azizi Ab Aziz, Faudziah Ahmad

Abstract:One of the main challenges that hugely effect readers’ performance is cognitive load. It plays a pivotal role to facilitate readers to learn, memorize, and digest a piece of novel information. However, cognitive load can also have insignificant impacts on reading task when the cognitive demands of the reading task when to solve a complex problem. This article proposed a computational model of cognitive load during reading task, based on Cognitive Load theory, to get deep understandings on the dynamics of cognitive load and how the different types of load like intrinsic, extraneous and germane load are affecting the level of cognitive load. A number of simulation experiments were conducted and the results showed that the model is able to produce realistic behaviours under different personalities and conditions. Furthermore, an automated verification was implemented to evaluate the model.

Keywords: cognitive Load, reading and learning, simulations, formal analysis, computational modelling.

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A PROPOSED RECOMMENDED WEIGHT LIMIT FOR LIFTING ACTIVITIES AMONG YOUNG ASIAN ADULTS

Author: Ahmad Syamil Mohd HAMID, Shamsul Bahri Mohd TAMRIN

Abstract:OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a recommended permissible weight standard for different types of lifting, horizontal distances, gender and body mass index (BMI) among Asian population. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional experimental study recruited 72 young adults using criteria of gender and BMI (underweight, normal and overweight). Two sessions were used 1) first session is to determine maximum lifting strength (MLS), 2) second session is to determine the maximum acceptable weight to lift (MAWL). Both sessions need the respondents of two-handed exertions in four lifting types (back lifting, upper-body lifting, arm lifting and shoulder lifting) across two horizontal distances (toes aligned with and posterior to the exerted handle). Total of 8 lifting tasks were performed by each of respondent in each session. Wilcoxon sign test was used to compare between MLS and MAWL and Kruskal-Wallis test to compare MLS and MAWL between 3 different BMI. RESULT: For all different types of lifting and horizontal distances shows that there is a significantly higher MLS compared to MAWL (p<0.05). Male respondent had a significantly higher (p<0.05) MLS and MAWL compared to female for all types of lifting and horizontal distances. Respondent with higher BMI had significantly higher (p<0.05) MLS and MAWL compared to underweight and normal. The study showed that the maximum weight lifted and acceptable weight for lifting is at upper-body compared to back, arm and shoulder lifting types. The recommended acceptable weight to lift for male upper-body is 17.8 ± 3.5 kg and for female is 11.3 ± 4.0 kg. CONCLUSION: Recommended that lifting use acceptable weight limit compared to maximum weight limit. Permissible weight standard should consider gender, BMI, horizontal distances and lifting types.

Keywords: maximum lifting strength, maximum acceptable weight, lifting, lifting types, horizontal distances

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THE PREVALENCE OF CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME AMONG COUNTER WORKERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANY

Author: Shamsul Bahri Mohd TAMRIN, Nur Sabreena ZAKARIA

Abstract:The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among the frontline counter workers and the associated risks. A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 frontline counter staffs whose working at the telecommunication company in Klang Valley area. A stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents. Respondents were interviewed by using structured questionnaire and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ). The structured questionnaire is used to determine demographic data, meanwhile CMDQ is to measure the discomfort of both right and left hands. A Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) is designed instrument to quantify exposure to office work environment. ROSA is a picture based posture checklist to obtain the risk level of workstation. The finding revealed that the prevalence of CTS among counter workers of the telecommunication company was 63%. Chi Square test indicated that there was no association between sociodemographic factors for age, gender, BMI, and race except marital status and education level with p>0.05. On the right hand, nearly 53% of the respondents had discomfort on the index and middle finger (χ²=8.45, p=0.07), 31% on the ring finger and pinkie (χ²=6.97, p=0.13), 42% on the distal thumb (χ²=1.93, p=0.75), 38% on the hand and metacarpal area (χ²=7.36, p=0.12), 53% on the thumb base (χ²=3.95, p=0.41), and 40% reported discomfort on the heel of hand (χ²=4.50, p=0.34). There was no significant association between office work design and CTS. This study found that the counter workers in telecommunication company reported high case of CTS. The prevalence of CTS was high however showed no association with the workstation assessment among counter workers area.

Keywords: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ), Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA), counter workers

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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISCOMFORT AMONG THE HOSTEL’S RESIDENCE OF UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA

Author: Fatin Nasuha Abdul Rahim, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin

Abstract:Numerous studies are conducted to study the ergonomics risk factors among schoolchildren and office workers. No study had
been conducted yet on the ergonomic risk factors for university students in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate
the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort among the university students. This is a cross-sectional study. The
respondents were selected using a simple random sampling method. Musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) was recorded using MSD
Questionnaire. Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) was used to assess awkward posture of student’s torso namely bending
forward movement, leaning, sitting and twisting. Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was used to quantify risk associated
with the work station of the students with computer related activities. Anthropometric measurement which consist of weight
and sitting measurement of a respondents using anthropometry set to measure the possible mismatch between the body
dimension of the students and furniture dimension. Four possible mismatch that measured were popliteal height and seat
height; buttock-popliteal length and seat depth; knee height and table clearance; and elbow rest height and table height.
Results showed that the prevalence of discomfort among the students was 76.7%. Results of Chi Square test showed that there
was no association between discomfort and demographic factors for gender, age, BMI and ethnicity. There was no association
between discomfort and ergonomic factors including ROSA (χ² = 2.635, p-value = 0.105), RULA (χ² = 4.634, p-value = 0.099), MSD
complain (χ² = 0.032, p-value = 0.857) and mismatch (χ² = 0.332 p-value = 0.564). The prevalence of discomfort was high among
the students. Therefore, a recommended chair dimension was recommend for the use in hostels to avoid the increasing of risks
among the students.

Keywords: musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD), rapid upper limb assessment (RULA), rapid office strain assessment
(ROSA), mismatch

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DETERMINANTS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND DISCOMFORT ON SEATING POSTURE AMONG ELDERLY TAXI DRIVERS: A PILOT STUDY RESULT

Author: Irwan Syah Md YUSOFF, Ahmad Zuhairi ABDUL MAJID1, Shamsul Bahri Mohd TAMRIN

Abstract:Purpose: Elderly taxi drivers among the whole taxi drivers are rapidly growth in Malaysia. The older taxi community may continue to serve their service even after retirement age of sixty years old. Therefore, older taxi drivers need to take specific consideration during driving activities according to ability and capability to sustain their life and minimizing injuries and avoiding accidents. Objective: This study is aimed to determine the characteristics and discomfort seating posture among elderly taxi drivers. Methodology: A pilot study was conducted with elderly taxi drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. It included questions on socio- demographic data, work characteristics and discomfort seating posture of the affected body part. Purposive method sampling used base on inclusive criteria; age 60 years old and above, self-driving taxi more than 1 year, no disabilities and driving using a national car. SPSS software used to analyse data. Results: The majority were employed by companies (59.1%) and worked more than eight hours daily (90.9%). The majority (95.5%) driving distance more than 150km per-week. More than half respondents (59.1%) having feeling back pain past 12 months. The highest feeling of discomfort on seating posture among elderly taxi drivers is at right buttock (50.0%) and left buttock is only (45.5%). At the lower back body parts indicates the highest (36.4%) discomfort on seating posture compares to other parts. Conclusions: An elderly taxi drivers potentially having MSD causes of current car seat design and the seating posture may not follow ergonomics principles. Most of the respondents had low awareness of important seating posture to improve their lifestyle and health.

Keywords: Discomfort, elderly taxi drivers, car seat design, seating driving posture.

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