Advanced Ergonomic Risk Assessments of Musculoskeletal Disorders via Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) Methods among Esports Players in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ahmad Fairuz1, P. Anusha2, A. Y. Muhammad Anas Farhan2, R. Nur Ain2, M. Y. Syafiqah Syahirah2, C. Mahereen2 and Y. Khadijah3.

Medi Ihsan Occupational Safety and Health (Selangor) Sdn Bhd, No 21, Jalan Setia Marina 3/3, Setia Marina 3, Setia Eco Glades, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia.1

Faculty of Medicine, University of Cyberjaya, Persiaran Bestari, Cyber 11, 63000, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia.2

Green Crescent Malaysia, Lobby Block B, Casa Green Condo, Jalan Casa Green, 43200 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia.3


Page 32 – 49   |   Vol. 8 No. 2 2023   |    Available online on 30 Dec 2023


Esports is characterised by its repetitive movements, and excessive engagement in this activity may lead to the development of gaming disorders and contribute to a range of musculoskeletal conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the ergonomic risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders using the RULA and ROSA methods among professional Esports players. A cross-sectional study was carried out among Malaysian Esports players in Kuala Lumpur (n=84) from September 2021 to June 2023. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The posture of the participants was assessed using the RULA method, strain related to computer-based hazards and workstation environment via the ROSA method, participants’ internet gaming disorder was recorded using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDFS9-SF), and the range of the musculoskeletal pains was assessed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 15 (17.86%) Esports players were reported to having IGD. Based on the NMQ, the common musculoskeletal pain due to gaming during the past 12 months was related to the hand/wrist, 33 (39.2%), neck, 27 (32.1%), and shoulder, 22 (26.2%). Among the players with IGD, 9 (60%) complained of having MSD. Ergonomic assessment via RULA showed 44 (52.4%) players were classified as having high ergonomic risk, with 25 (56.8%) players were significantly associated with MSD (p = 0.045; p<0.05). ROSA method indicated that 50 (59.5%) players were classified as having a high ergonomic risk with 21 (42%) players were found to have MSD, however, the association was not statistically significant (p = 0.324, p>0.05). Esports players are at a greater risk of getting musculoskeletal complications as a result of adopting improper posture and being exposed to a hazardous working environment.  There is a significant need for interventions and increased knowledge of ergonomics to encourage better gaming habits. 


Esports, Internet gaming disorder, Ergonomic risks, RULA, ROSA, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Malaysia.

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Human Factors & Ergonomics Journal (HFEJ), eISSN: 2590-3705  is the official Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Malaysia.  The journal is published on a biannual basis. HFEJ aims to address current research in the field of Ergonomics in addition to the broad coverage of cognitive ergonomics, user experience, physical ergonomics and others such as transportation, industrial design and industrial engineering. HFEJ is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics), as such we only accept original work.