Driving Efficiency: Unveiling the Impact of Secondary Tasks through Design of Experiment (DOE)

Driving Efficiency: Unveiling the Impact of Secondary Tasks through Design of Experiment (DOE)

Sabariah Mohd Yusoff1, Mohd Aidil Shahmin Abd Razak1

Quality Engineering Section, Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology, University Kuala Lumpur, 81750 Masai, Johor, Malaysia1

sabariahmy@unikl.edu.my 1

Page 129 – 135   |   Vol. 8 No. 2 2023   |    Available online on 30 Dec 2023


In the field of ergonomics, secondary tasks refer to activities unrelated to the primary task when individuals perform multiple concurrent tasks. The allocation of cognitive resources to the secondary task, while ensuring the completion of the primary task, plays a crucial role in this context. Presently, there is a growing interest in understanding how distractions impact the overall driving experience. Hence, the principal aim of this research is to systematically identify the specific secondary tasks that have a discernible impact on the driving experience. Employing a 3-factor, 2-level Design of Experiments (DoE), half of the subjects participated in a real-life driving scenario while concurrently engaging in two distinct secondary tasks. This study also sought to investigate the relationship between secondary tasks and response times. Furthermore, it aimed to pinpoint the optimal secondary tasks that enhance the driving experience as a secondary objective. To accomplish this, an in-situ experiment was conducted, involving 10 volunteer drivers. Following the experimental sessions, participants were asked to provide feedback on their driving experience through a brief questionnaire. the critical role of distance in shaping emergency braking and driving accuracy. These findings contribute significantly to our understanding of cognitive demands, multitasking, and road safety in real-world scenarios.


Ergonomics, Secondary Task, Driver Experience, Design of Experiment

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Human Factors & Ergonomics Journal (HFEJ), eISSN: 2590-3705  is the official Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Malaysia.  The journal is published on a biannual basis. HFEJ aims to address current research in the field of Ergonomics in addition to the broad coverage of cognitive ergonomics, user experience, physical ergonomics and others such as transportation, industrial design and industrial engineering. HFEJ is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics), as such we only accept original work.